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From Roots To Results
Transcript of From Roots To Results
The Rule of the Early Caliphs
Art During The Umayyad Period
The Islamic Empire had great developments in trade proved to be a major benefit to the Muslims and to the rest of the world. International trade increased and maintained expansion of the empire. Materials for manufacturing purposes, luxuries, and food were in great demand and supply among the people. The flow of products taken in for sale at the lowest possible prices improved the speed of import and advanced the influence of traders internationally. Major countries such as India and China exported pepper, spices, valued stones, fine cloth, and ceramics to the Muslims, in exchange for coral ivory, and textiles. The Vikings and the Russians also traded luxurious furs, slaves, and wax in exchange for Muslim-produced textiles and metal goods.
From Roots To Results
The Islamic Empire
In the early 700s the Iberian peninsula was controlled by a Visigothic king named Roderick, who was viewed as a tyrant. He was a Trinitarian, while most of his people were Unitarians. There was an Iberian nobleman who went to an Umayyad military leader for help overthrowing him. So in 711 an Ummayad army met Roderick's army at the Battle of Guadalete on July 19,711. The Muslims conquered the area in the next 7 years.
In the tenth to twelfth centuries, an are including present day Algeria, Tunisia, Sicily, Egypt, and Syria came under the rule of the Fatimid Dynasty (909- 1171), an branch of a shi’i sect from North Africa.
During Abbasid reign many groups went off and formed dynasties of their own, The Fatimid’s were of these dynasties.
The Fatimid rulers were descent from Muhammad’s daughter Fatima (Fatimid).
The Fatimid Dynasty first established itself in Tunisia, North Africa, in December 909 A.D.
To make their reign more effective the Fatimids moved their capital to Cairo, Egypt, a more central capital than Tunisia.
Cairo benefited the Fatimid dynasty because it was a center of trade between Syria, Palestine, Arabian and Mediterranean Islands.
Art and Architecture
The luxury of the Fatimid court fueled a renaissance in the decorative arts, which made Cairo the most important cultural center in the Islamic world. Nearby Cairo became a major center for the production of pottery, glass, metalwork, rock-crystal, ivory, and wood carving.
In architecture, the Fatimids followed Tulunid(the first independent dynasty to rule Islamic Egypt) techniques and used similar materials, but also developed those of their own. In Cairo, their first congregational mosque was Al-Azhar (the splendid) was founded along with the city (969–73).
How Muslim Spain was Conquered
Ummayad Dynasty in Spain
When the Umayyad dynasty was replaced by the Abbasids in 756, Umayyad prince named Abd Al-Rahman fled to modern day Spain and established the Caliphate of Cordoba in the area shown in this picture.
These show how architecture was important in Spain at the time. Some important architectural achievements include the Mosque of Cordoba, and the Alhambra.
The Prophet (S) said, "If I were to take a friend other than my Lord, I would take Abu Bakr as a friend."
Prophet Muhammad (S) did not name a successor before his death, and he didn't have any sons to take the leadership after him. He left it up to the Muslim Ummah to choose who their next leader was. the first four leaders of Islam were called the Khulafa' Al-Rashideen, Rightly Guided Caliphs.
The Prophet (S) said, "God has placed truth upon Umar's tongue and heart."
The Prophet (S) said, "Every Prophet has an assistant, and my assistant will be Uthman."
The Prophet (S) said, "You [Ali] are my brother in this world and the next."
The era of the Early Caliphs was probably the most similar to that of Prophet Muhammad (S). The Khulafa' Al-Rashidun ruled by the Quran and Sunnah. The laws were based on the Sharia' (Islamic Law). They ruled with tolerance toward all religions and ethnic groups and with justice toward every individual. The Caliphs lived simple and righteous lives. They didn't use their power as an advantage rather they took it as an Amana and a responsibility under Allah SWT, which they will be asked about in the Day of Judgement. After these four, the later Caliphs assumed the manners of kings and emperors.
Abu Bakr, at the time he accepted the caliphate, stated his position as follows:
"The weak among you shall be strong with me until their rights have been vindicated; and the strong among you shall he weak with me until, if the Lord wills, I have taken what is due from them... Obey me as long as I obey God and His Messenger. When I disobey Him and His Prophet, then obey me not."
After taking charge of his office, Umar spoke to the Muslims of Medina:
"...O people, you have some rights on me which you can always claim. One of your rights is that if anyone of you comes to me with a claim, he should leave satisfied. Another of your rights is that you can demand that I take nothing unjustly from the revenues of the State. You can also demand that... I fortify your frontiers and do not put you into danger. It is also your right that if you go to battle I should look after your families as a father would while you are away.
O people, remain conscious of God, forgive me my faults and help me in my task. Assist me in enforcing what is good and forbidding what is evil. Advise me regarding the obligations that have been imposed upon me by God..."
The End of the Fatimid Dynasty
The Fatimid Dynasty lasted until the late 1100s. It weakened significantly through the 1000s and 1100s, with internal revolts by Sunnis and the Crusades severely hindering its power.
The lights went out for the Fatimids in 1171, when Salah al-Din, officially abolished the caliphate, naming himself Sultan and reuniting Egypt with the Sunni world.
The rise of Islam began with Prophet Muhammad (S), a reciever and messanger of Allah (SWT). He is believed to be the last Prophet of Allah (SWT). Prophet Muhammad occupied the most amazing qualities, and therefore, Muslims, in all aspects of their life, strive to follow his example. After the holy Qur'an, the sayings of the Prophet (hadith) and descriptions of his way of life (sunnah) are the most important Muslim texts.
The Six Pillars
The Five Pillars of Islam
The Abbasid empire stated at 750, when Abu Muslim and al- Safah faced the Umayyad caliph, Marwan 1, in the Battle of Zab in the Tigris River. Marwan 1 was defeated, fled, then captures and killed. When Safah captured Damascus, he slaughtered the remaining members of the Umayyad family. However Abd al-Rahman survived, he fled to Spain and continued the Umayyad dynasty.
In the beginning of the empire the capital was moved to Baghdad and an army and generals were put together. Although the Abbasids were not as successful as the Umayyad in the military, the empire was still quite large. There were many battles that were won but many were also lost. For example the Battle of Talas in the valley of the Talas River; the army of the Tang dynasty, Chinese, defeated the Abbasid army.
One of the reasons the capital of the Abbasid was in Baghdad, Iraq was because of the location. Baghdad was a rich trading center, located between the Tigris and Euphrates River. Therefore Baghdad’s economy relied on taxes, and wealth generated by trade and manufacturing. During the Abbasid empire, it was rich with recourses. For example people traded gold, silver, copper, iron, dates, rice, cotton, leather goods, textiles, paper. In exchange they received silk from China, spices from India, and furs and slaves from Asia.
During the Abbasid dynasty, a new sophisticated clothes fashion immerged, mostly influenced by the Persians and the wealthy people. The clothes worn usually represented a symbol of rank and power. For example, the caliph would give out a robe of honor, khil’a, to a man the government wanted to esteem.
Elegant/ elite people would not wear clashing or distasteful colors, such as saffron. Women’s clothing would be perfumed with musk, sandalwood, hyacinth or ambergris, but nothing else. The elite/ fashionable men wore cloths perfumed with scents such as powdered musk or rosewater. Most elite people did not wear certain colors, such as pink.
The cloths of the caliph was not that much different than those who were considered elite. However the one main difference is the caliph had clothes/ robes made out of unique fabric and they had much more gems on their cloths.
The common folk wore less extravagant clothes, they were unable to layer there cloths or use expensive materials to make their cloths. Therefore everyday cloths were made of wool and people usually wore tunics.
The golden age of the Islamic empire was considered to occur during the time of Harun Al-Rashid. He became the fifth caliph of the Abbasid Empire in 786 AD. Under his rule, trade flourished, there was an increase in territory, translation of Greek, Roman, and Chinese into Arabic, scholars come together, advances in art, advances in engineering / architecture, advances in medicine, creation of mosques, creation of libraries, progress in anatomy, and progress in chemistry and mathematics.
During the golden age one famous scholar was Ibn Sina (Avicenna) or Abu Ali al-Hussain Ibn Abdallah Ibn Sina. He was the most famous physician, philosopher, encyclopedias, mathematician and astronomer of his time. However he also contributed to the medical science, music, geometry, physics, and many other fields. Ibn Sina wrote 99 books, almost all in Arabic, but two of his works were written in Farsi, his native language.
One of the most well known and famous works of Ibn Sina is the Canon of Medicine or in Arabic al-Qanun fil Tibb and was completed in 1025. The Canon of Medicine summarizes the medical knowledge of the time and it is made up of five volumes; it was considered one of the great classics in the history of medicine. The book was originally written in Arabic, however it was later translated into a number or other languages including Persian, Latin, Chinese, German, French and English.
The Role of Women
In early Islam, there was equality between the genders. For example, women were able to own land or a business. However during the Abbasid dynasty, the role of women began to change due to the influence of the India and the Byzantium. Women no longer had any political power or influence. Furthermore women were kept out of public life, and had restricted movements; some describe the women of this time as little more than slaves.
The House of Wisdom was first built in the rein of Haran al Rashid. The House of Wisdom is a Scientific Academy, built to store information. In this Academy, writers, authors and other knowledgeable people used to meet every day for translation, reading, writing, dialogue and discussion.
The astrolabe is an instrument that measures latitude, it is used for navigation of the seas. The astrolabe was originally invented by the Greeks, but the Islamic astronomers refined and improved it.
The Great Mosque of Samarra was made during the caliphate of Al-Mu’tasim.T he Great Mosque of Samarra was completed in 851 AD and has the dimensions are 240 by 160 meters large. The Great Mosque was constructed using bake brick materials, which is expensive and high quality. Usually, mosques and other buildings were constructed using mud.
Calligraphy was considered an art in the Abbasid dynasty. During the Abbasid dynasty, many people practiced and excelled at calligraphy. Often the people who wrote calligraphy also excelled at geometry because they are closely linked. Calligraphy was a sign of wealth and significance. Therefore it was used for the decoration of the mosques, one of the most important buildings in Islam.
The Arabian Nights, The One Thousand and One or in Arabic “Alf laylah was laylah” is a collection of largely Middle Eastern and Indian stories in one book. However the author and date of the stories is unknown. The scholars of the Abbasid dynasty just put all the stories in one book. Some of these stories include Aladdin, Ali Baba and Sindbad the Sailor.
Military Gains and Expansion
The Greatest Islamic Expansion occurred between 632-656 AD , starting with Abu Bakr's reign and ending with Uthman's.
Under the leadership of Abu Bakr (RA), Islam spread through much of Arabia.
When Umar (RA) took control, the Muslims emerged victorious from the battle of Yarmuk, and gained Syria four years later. Later on, around 642 AD, Egypt and other areas of northern africa had been added to the Islamic Empire also under Umar Ibn Al-Khattab. The areas included Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq.
As for Uthman (RA), he was able to conquer the entire Persian Empire by 650 AD.
Growth of Cities and Capitals
Under Abu Bakr (RA), the capital of the Islamic Empire was Medina. However, when Umar (RA) took leadership, he moved the capital to damascus Syria, and this capital remains until the beginning of the Umayyad Empire.
The major trade cities under the reign of the Early Caliphs were Mekkah and Medina. Other major cities were located in the Persian Empire as well as Eqypt.
-The Umayyad period was a critical time in the development of Islamic architecture. Often times, the Umayyad's constructed their monuments with a historical or symbolic significance. The Dome Of The Rock in Jerusalem (completed in 691) was the first major Umayyad architectural monument.
-The name of this dynasty comes from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph.
-The Umayyad Dynasty was the first dynasty of the Muslim calipahte, Muawiyah with Damascus as its capital.
The Umayyad period is often considered the formative period in Islamic art. Even though Arabic became the official language and Islam became the principal religion of the diverse lands unified under the Umayyad rule, artists continued to work in the same manner. However, as time went by artists developed new techniques and forms that made their works more successful the from earlier ones. Soon a new sense of artistic expression arose and was distinctly Islamic in character shortly after the fall of the Umayyad dynasty.
Motives For Conquests
In The Umayyad Empire the unity the Islamic faith provided gave them a new sense of common cause and strength. The chance to glorify their new religion may have been a motive for the Arab conquests, but they weren’t interested to win converts to it. In fact, other than fellow Bedouin tribes of Arab descent, the invaders had good reason to avoid mass conversions. The Arab warriors had to share the ‘booty’ of their military expeditions with converts, so the vision of the holy wars were launched to forcibly spread the faith. They fought in many battles like The Battle of The Tours, Battle Of Avignon, Battle Of Defile, The Battle Of Karbala, etc.
-Women: women normally covered their head and face with a variety of veils when appearing in public and were usually entirely enveloped from head to foot in a large hijab, leaving only one eye free. The two most common face veils were the litham (a rectangular cloth covering the nose and the lower half of the face) and the burka.
-Men: occasionally wore a veil to cover their head and face. Some young men who did, veiled their faces particularly at feasts and fairs to protect themselves from the evil eye. Also, the free end of the turban cloth often served as a face veil to protect the wearer against dust when riding.
-Footwear for both genders was the same; the na'l or sandal (made from palm fibre, smooth leather or leather with animal hair) and the khuff (a sort of shoe or boot made with leather).
-The main change of early Islamic fashion in the Umayyad period was the introduction of clothing made from luxury fabric for the caliphs, and embroidered garments. Clothing sometimes formed a considerable part of a families investment, being passed on from parent to child to be sold in times of an emergency.
Slab (ink on limestone)
Ewer(engraved and peirced/located in Syria)
Part of facade of the Qasr Mshatta
The Dome Of The Chain
Couryard of Umayyad Mosque
Decoration from Khirbat Al-Minya
Umar (RA) reported:
"Jibreel came to the Prophet (S) sadi about Iman: (It means) the faith in Allah, Hisangels, His Books, His Messanger, the Day of Judgement, and the belief in Qadaa and Qadar-whether its good or bad."
Source: Sahih Muslim
Ibn Umar reported: The Messanger of Allah , peace be upon him, said
"Islam is built upon five: to worship Allah and to disbelive in what is worshiped besides Him, to establish prayer, to give charity, to perform Haj pilgrimage to the House, and to fast the month of Ramadan."
Source: Sahih Bukhari 8, Sahih Muslim 16
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah ; and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating [in prayer], seeking bounty from Allah and [His] pleasure. Their mark is on their faces from the trace of prostration. That is their description in the Torah. And their description in the Gospel is as a plant which produces its offshoots and strengthens them so they grow firm and stand upon their stalks, delighting the sowers - so that Allah may enrage by them the disbelievers. Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds among them forgiveness and a great reward.
If We had sent down this Qur'an upon a mountain, you would have seen it humbled and coming apart from fear of Allah . And these examples We present to the people that perhaps they will give thought.