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Paragraph Structure/Author's Purpose and Point of View

Most of this information came from: http://www.slideshare.net/jtierno/ch05-6854620?next_slideshow=1
by

Tiffany Davis

on 28 November 2016

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Transcript of Paragraph Structure/Author's Purpose and Point of View

1. Cause and Effect
The cause(s) must come before the effect(s)
Because of A, B happened.
Paragraph Structure and the Authors Point of view/Purpose
2. Definition/Description
◦Concept is defined first (What is it?)
◦Examples and restatements expand the concept
◦Defined term is usually signaled by
italicized
or
boldfaced
type
Signal words: is, was, are, were, meaning, for example, define

3. Sequence/Chronological
Organized according to time or the sequence of which something occurred.
4. Compare/Contrast
Presented according to similarities/differences between them
Can be presented together or independently
5. Classification
Used to simplify a complex topic
The information is broken up into groups or categories
The divisions are explained and/or the parts are explained
The standards:
RI.7.5: Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas.

RI.7.6: Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others.
Transition words: similar, in the same way, in comparison, different, in contrast, on the other hand, but, however
Transition words: first, second, third, after, before, when, until, at last, next, later
Transition words: for this reason, consequently, because
But first.....
Transition words: two divisions, three groups, four elements, five classes, six levels, seven categories
we're gonna be fancy!
What are patterns of organization?
Basically, this is how the details are grouped together or presented in a text.
Understanding these patterns helps with reading comprehension.
We are going to learn about 5 types of text structure, though there are more.
When did it happen? In what order did it happen?
What is it?
What are the similarities? What are the differences?
What happened? What caused this to happen?
What are the parts? How should this information be divided?
Cause/Effect example:
The Hard Life of Farmers

The lack of rain and snow has horrible effects on farmers. with no rain their land dries up, and it is very difficult to grow anything. When the crops fail, the farmers haven't any choice but to get a second job in order to make the money they need. Farming is a full time job and with a second job, farmers are overworked, stressed and even depressed. Many farmers end up selling their land. Some farmers have accepted the government program the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), which is the land is left idle to let the grass grow and must be left idle a certain number of years. while the land is in the CRP program, some farmers have taken outside jobs. That is why when it doesn't rain, you notice that most of the farmers are very crabby. As a farmer's daughter, I have experienced some good times and some bad times. I have gained a great respect for farmers everywhere.
~(c)2005 Laura White~

The Hard Life of Farmers
Cause: Lack of rain and snow
Effect: Farmers are having to seek other jobs and/or leave their land unattended so they can participate in the program; they may be crabby.
Sequence example:
How to make a PB & J sandwich

First, you need to get two pieces of bread, a jar of peanut butter, jelly/jam, and a butter knife. Second, open your jar of peanut butter and spread the peanut butter evenly on both pieces of bread using your butter knife. Third, take your knife and spread your jelly/jam onto one slice of bread. (This will cover the peanut butter on that side.) Lastly, place the jelly/jam slice against the peanut butter slice and enjoy!
*Notice that if the steps are completed out of order, the outcome changes.
Cause/Effect example:
Many people think that they can get sick by going into cold weather improperly dressed; however, illnesses are not caused by temperature- they are caused by germs. So while shivering outside in the cold probably won’t strengthen your immune system, you’re more likely to contract an illness indoors because you will have a greater exposure to germs.
Illnesses
Cause: germs
Effect(s): illness(es)
Illness
Chrono=Time
Logic=Order
Sequence/Chronological
This morning was crazy. My alarm clock was set for PM instead of AM, so I woke up really late. I just threw on some clothes and ran out the door. I rode my bike as fast as I could and thought that I was going to be late for sure, but when I got there everyone was outside and there were firetrucks all lined up in front of school. I guess somebody pulled the fire alarm before class started. It worked out though, because nobody really noticed or minded that I was tardy.
The Crazy Morning
Compare/Contrast example:
Linux and Windows are both operating systems. Computers use them to run programs. Linux is totally free and open source, so users can improve or otherwise modify the source code. Windows is proprietary, so it costs money to use and users are prohibited from altering the source code.
Apples and oranges are both fruits, which means that they have seeds inside of them. Each has a skin, but orange skins are thick and easy to peel. Apple skins are thinner and do not peel easily. Oranges also contain more acid than apples, but both fruits are delicious.
Compare/Contrast
Author's Purpose
Author's write for three reasons....

to inform.
to persuade.
to entertain.
To Inform:
The purpose is to provide information about a particular subject/topic.
The author wants to teach the reader something.
Examples of texts written to inform include textbooks, cookbooks, newspapers, and encyclopedias.
To Persuade:
Try to talk the reader into believing a certain way or taking a certain action
The author wants YOU (the reader) to agree with them.
Examples of persuasive writing include speeches, advertisements, commercials, and newspaper editorials
To Entertain:
Tell a story and/or make the reader laugh.
Any piece of fiction falls into this category.
Examples include: poems, novels, short stories, book series, etc.
It's as easy as PIE!
6. Problem/Solution
A problem is presented and a solution or possible solutions are, too.
Signal words: problem, solution
What is the problem? How can it be fixed?
RI 8.5 Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept.


RI 8.6 Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.
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