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End of WW2
Transcript of End of WW2
Stoney The Magical Pony
End of the War Yalta and Potsdam Conferences Yalta The Yalta and Potsdam conferences were called to help the Allies decide what would happen to Europe, and in particular Germany, at the end of the Second World War. Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met at Yalta on the Black Sea in February 1945 to discuss the major questions and issues concerning postwar Germany, Eastern Europe, and Asia. All of the fighting that led to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and Hitler’s suicide gave the Allies time to make plans for a postwar world. The meeting was intended mainly to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe. Introductory Video Potsdam The Big Three formalized the decision to divide Germany into four zones of occupation: Soviet, American, British, and French. They also agreed to new borders and free elections for Poland. The main purpose of this meeting was to put into effect the agreements made earlier at Yalta. At the conference the Big Three agreed that Poland, Bulgaria, and Romania would hold free elections. US and Soviet Relations VE Day (Victory in Europe Day) - This marked the "end" of World war 2. -Adolf Hitler had committed suicide on April 30th, prior to VE day, and his replacement, Admiral Karl Doenitz, signed the unconditional surrender of German forces. - The unconditional surrender was signed at Dwight Eisenhower's headquarters on May 7th, 1945 - This news was later received by Churchill - The numbers of casualties for the entire war surmounted to around 60 million people - - Rationing that was occurring because of the war started to dwindle - Germans still attacked merchant ships with U-boats and continued to fight the Red Army for several days after VE day. - Germany then tried to avoid the Soviets, starting a major exodus, but they were later stopped by the soviets. 13000 POW were sent to Britain. - Although this seemed like the end, it wasn't. Held during the war with Germany. Called to bring Nazi-war criminals to trial. During the War, Britain and the USA were allies of the Soviet Union but the only thing that united them was their hatred of Germany. Divided Germany into four “zones” that GB, France, the US, and the Soviet Union would occupy after the war. At Potsdam, the Allies met after the surrender of Germany to finalize the principals of the post-war peace. They recognized the Soviet’s right to claim reparations for war damages from the German sector they controlled.
Stalin also reaffirmed his Yalta pledge to enter the war against Japan. Potsdam Conference The Big Three became dramatically altered before the Potsdam Conference.
After FDR's death in 1945, Harry S. Truman became the new US president.
Clement Atlee replaced Churchill as prime minister of Britain.
Stalin remained a constant power in the Soviet Union. Bibliography http://www.johndclare.net/cold_war4.htm Once Germany was defeated, Stalin would enter the war against Japan. Causes of the Cold War Fear of communism
Technology, Arms, influence
Ideological differences Relations before the Cold War
US and Russian relations were not stable even before WW2
These 2 became allies only at the sight of such a great threat as Germany
The two nations promoted two opposing economic and political ideologies
Frigid relationship even after WW1
Russian Revolution causes disagreement
US withdraw from international affairs caused disagreement United Nations http://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE&inPS=true&prodId=GVRL.ushistory&userGroupName=berw2747&tabID=T003&searchId=R1&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&contentSegment=&searchType=BasicSearchForm¤tPosition=1&contentSet=GALE%7CCX3401804337&&docId=GALE|CX3401804337&docType=GALE http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/767395?terms=united+nations http://www.fofweb.com/NuHistory/default.asp?ItemID=WE53 http://find.galegroup.com/gic/docRetrieve.do?searchPageType=BasicSearchForm&inPS=true&prodId=GIC&userGroupName=berw2747&docId=CP3208520418 Founded in 1945 at the end of WWII
San Francisco Conference
Organization dedicated to peace and humanitarian causes worldwide
Successor to League of Nations
Has 193 member states currently
5 permanent members (Allied powers):
Russia (Soviet Union)
Successor to the League of Nations Four Functions 1) Keep peace throughout the world
2) Help nations work together to improve lives of the less fortunate
3) Encourage respect for each other's rights and freedoms
4) Create a center for harmonizing the actions of nations to achieve the above goals San Francisco, 1945 Modern UN meeting Victory in Europe Day http://find.galegroup.com/gic/retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=Relevance&tabID=T001&prodId=GIC&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchId=R4&searchType=¤tPosition=1&qrySerId=Locale%28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28KE%2CNone%2C16%29nuremberg+trials%3AAnd%3ALQE%3D%28TY%2CNone%2C16%29%22Topic+Overview%22%24&userGroupName=berw2747&inPS=true&docId=CX3434600253&contentSet=EBKS&docId=CX3434600253&docType=EBKS http://find.galegroup.com/gic/retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=Relevance&tabID=T001&prodId=GIC&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchId=R4&searchType=¤tPosition=2&qrySerId=Locale%28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28KE%2CNone%2C16%29nuremberg+trials%3AAnd%3ALQE%3D%28TY%2CNone%2C16%29%22Topic+Overview%22%24&userGroupName=berw2747&inPS=true&docId=CX3447000656&contentSet=EBKS&docId=CX3447000656&docType=EBKS http://www.fofweb.com/NuHistory/LowerFrame.asp?iPin=WWII0477&InputText=nuremberg+trials&SearchStyle=Keyword&dTitle=Nuremberg+Trials&iRecordType=&TabRecordType=AllRecords&TribeName=&TribeCodeSearch=&dCultureArea=&AllCountPass=155&SubBioCountPass=148&BioCountPass=69&SubCountPass=72&DocCountPass=6&ImgCountPass=8&MapCountPass=0&RecPosition=1 Nuremberg Trials Took place on November 20, 1945 in the Palace of Justice in Nuremberg, Germany and lasted 11 months
US, UK, France, and Soviet Union met in London and formed the London Carter
Led to the creation of the International Military Tribunal
Purpose was for prompt trial and punishment of war criminals
Framing of indictment was difficult since this meeting was the first of its kind Germany would undergo demilitarization and denazification. Germany would pay war reparations to the Allies. Results 22 Nazis were persecuted
12 were sentenced to death
3 were acquitted
3 life sentences
Rest were given 10 to 20 years
Efforts were late since major offenders were already dead: Adolf Hitler, Joseph Goebbels, Heinrich Himmler
Out of all the Nazi organizations tried, the SS (Schutzstaffel), SD, and the Gestapo were found guilty and subjected to trial
One defendant committed suicide while in prison NATO and Warsaw Warsaw Pact: Was a pact consisting of european communist countries, this was a reaction to NATOSoviets ideally wanted the pact to serve as a military deterrent to the NATO nations
Warsaw was formed in 1955 North Atlantic Treaty of Organization (NATO): A pact which stated an attack on anyone of the member would be an attack on them all, also provided enough military alliance power to combat soviet expansion
Nato was formed in 1949