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Beneficial Uses of Terminalia catappa
Transcript of Beneficial Uses of Terminalia catappa
A native of southern India and coastal south-east Asia.
Widely distributed throughout the humid tropics.
Easily propagated from seed, fast growing, and flourishes with minimal maintenance in suitable environments.
Grows in well aerated, freely drained areas, sandy soils
Deciduous tree species
Grows 75-130 ft in height & tolerant of strong winds, salt spray, and moderately high salinity in the root zone.
widely planted throughout the tropics for shade and also along the sandy shores for coastal protection.
The Terminalia catappa plant is widely distributed throughout the Bahamas and has successfully adapted to Bahamian enviroment.
Typical Form : Leaves, Flowers, Fruits, Seeds
Common Uses of Terminalia catappa
Methodology and Product Application
When large amounts of tannin rich plant material end up in a slow flowing river, they create a type of habitat commonly referred to as “blackwater.”
Blackwater has a physical appearance that resembles the appearance of tea as a result of the tannins extraction which actually lowers its pH (IndianAlmondleaves).
Methodology and Product Application
1. Collect fresh Terminalia catappa leaves and wash thoroughly with water.
2. Remove all bruised, damaged or dying leaves.
3. Place the fresh leaves in a sealable container.
4. Completely submerge the leaves in the alcohol.
5. Seal the container and allow it to sit for 2 weeks.
6. Strain the leaves from the mixture and place the remaining contents in the refrigerator to freeze.
7. Take the solution out of the refrigerator whereas a suspension should be formed with the oil at the bottom and alcohol at the top.
8. Obtain the oil by pouring the top layer of alcohol.
Creating Candle Using Oil Extract
1. Using a straw to hold the wick, dab a bit of hot glue onto the bottom of the wick tab and press it firmly into the center of the glass.
2. Pre-heat the jars.
3. Melt wax.
4. Add 5ml of almond oil to wax and stir.
5. Slowly, pour melted wax into jar.
6. Let the candles cool slowly.
7. Allow candles to sit overnight before burning.
Creating Soap Using Oil Extract (Melting Process)
1. Use a knife to cut off sufficient pieces of soap base
2. Place the chunks of soap base into a microwavable bowl and heat them up using a microwave for 2 minutes
3. Chunks should now be liquefied but hot.
4. Pour your tropical almond oil extracts from leaf/seed kernel and mix thoroughly
5. Add any other scented oils you wish to include in your soap and continue to mix thoroughly
6. Pour the new mixture into a dish suitable for shaping the bar of soap and allow it to cool
7. You may put your mixture into the refrigerator to keep cool or to speed up the process of “curing”.
Boil 2 gallons of water.
Insert 6 large fresh leaves into hot water.
Allow the mixture to sit for 2 weeks and observe the dark color change.
1. Repeat steps 1-3 of the “Methodology for Extracting Tannins”
2. Fill test vital 1/2 full with the pure water.
3. Add 3 drops of the pH test indicator to the solution.
4. Tap the side of the vital to mix the contents.
5. Observe the color in the test vital.
6. Use the chart to determine the pH level.
7. Repeat step 1-6 but instead test blackwater.
The uses of the Terminalia catappa are vast and extraordinary. They are beneficial to both the physical health of the human population and also to the environment.
The production of fabric dyes, soaps and candles represent only a small sector of the many products that can easily be produce from the potent physiological elements of this plant.
based on the experiments carried out and the results it can be concluded that the tropical almond tree has the potential to become a major contributor to the medical, scientific and general communities where it is abundantly grown or to those who can easily access it.
BY: Raynell Williams, Natacha Jn-Simon and Stefan Bonimy
Instructor: Dr. Earle McClaain Johnson
Pigmented Leaves containing tannins
Extracting T. catappa oil
Thank you for your attention
Younger trees display a characteristic pagoda form,
The crown becomes flatter in older trees.
The trunk is usually straight and cylindrical,
The bark is often dark and scaly.
Large trees may develop big, occasionally branching buttresses and often have twisted, leaning trunks.
leaves - arranged in close spirals,
The leaf blade - simple, broadly ovate, with pairs of secondary veins.
The leaf tip - rounded and blunt,
New leaves have a covering of soft, appressed, brown hairs.
Mature leaves are lustrous, dark green and leathery. they turn bright yellow, then to an attractive dark red before falling.
They are small, white or cream-colored, five-lobed and arranged on long axillary spikes.
the majority of the flowers are male, with only a few monocious flowers positioned toward the base.
The flowers may exert a mildly unpleasant scent.
Mature trees exhibit large variations in the size and shape of fruits, nuts and kernels,
Kernels are in the size range of 0.9-1.7 x 0.3-0.6 inches and its weight can range from 0.1-0.9 g (Agroforestry).
The seed kernels can also be a good source of oil and extracts which have other numerous health benefits.
Terminalia Catappa tree exhibits many medicinal properties. The leaves can be used as a diaphoretic, anti-indigestion, and anti-dysentery.
young leaves or scraped bark taken as a potion for treating mouth infections in Tonga and Samoa,
Used to bathe fractures.
young leaves are used to cure headache and colic.
seed kernels can be a major source of Vitamin E,
The naturally occurring substances in the Terminalia catappa can contribute to a variety of useful products.
A One major use is that it can be used a dye.
Capable of dying clothing, ink production and staining leather.
Almond leaves, barks, fruits and roots are capable of staining because it contains tannins.
Tannins are naturally occurring astringent, bitter plant polyphenols that are typically found in the surface wax or in the vacuoles of plants (Indianalmondleaves.com).
Tannins provide many benefits for the plant
It prevents plant buds from freezing, reduces palatability to protect the leaves against predators, act as a chemical barrier to prevent penetration and colonization of the roots by plant pathogens, aids seed tissue in maintaining plant dormancy (due to its allelopathic and bactericidal properties) and promotes growth of the stem tissues (Cornell University).
One to five fruits develop on the basal part of the flower spike.
The fruit is a sessile, laterally compressed, ovoid to ovate, smooth-skinned drupe.
it changes color from green to yellow to bright red or dark purplish-red at full maturity.
kernels consist of two entwined cotyledons enclosed in a cream-colored or rarely red testa.
rind of the fruit - light, pithy, or corky tissue that enables the fruit to float and be dispersed by sea current
the mesocarp of this fruit can contribute to producing almond oil which is commonly used for skin treatment.
study conducted revealed that Terminalia catappa leaves exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activities by reducing ear edema (Fan et al. 3-4).
T. catappa extract displayed antagonistic activity on two types of bacterium. A phytochemical analysis yielded saponin, saponin glycosides, steroid, cardiac glycoside, tannins, volatile oils, phenols and balsam (gum) which can be deemed responsible for its anti-microbial property. (Babayi et al)
Studies carried out by Dr. Chen investigated the effect of the extract of T catappa leaves (TCE) on invasion and motility of tumor cells. The study found that T. catappa leaf extract has a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the invasion and motility of highly metastatic cancer cells. These results indicate that TCE could be a potential anti-metastatic agent (Chen).
T. Catappa leaf extract also contain antioxidants such as Punicalagin and squalene.
Studies have shown that treatment with T. catappa leaf extracts showed antihepatotoxic activity against induced toxicity in the rat liver that was tested, proving that Terminalia catappa possesses good antihepatotoxic activity and superoxide radical scavenger activity. (Goa et al)
Terminalia catappa Extract
Table of Contents
According to an analysis by the University of South Wales the nutritional values are as follows
18 mg sodium
200 mg Calcium