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Climate Change

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Adi Abyoga

on 9 January 2018

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Transcript of Climate Change

Indonesia in the face of Climate Change
Agenda
Overview of Indonesian Climate System
The Impact of global warming in Indonesia (and the other way around)
Adaptation and Mitigation
Conclusion
QA Session
Geographical landscape
Sea Level Rise
Unpredictable Weather Pattern (High precipitation in one place and drought in the other)
Forest fires and deforestation
Overview of Indonesian Climate System
The equatorial position
Tropical Climate
One big archipelago
The Impact of Global Warming in Indonesia
Ed Wray/Getty Images : http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/picturegalleries/worldnews/9809569/Monsoon-rains-trigger-floods-in-Jakarta-Indonesia-paralysing-city-of-14-million.html?frame=2454864
AP : http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/picturegalleries/worldnews/9809569/Monsoon-rains-trigger-floods-in-Jakarta-Indonesia-paralysing-city-of-14-million.html?frame=2454864
Ed Wray/Getty Images : http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/picturegalleries/worldnews/9809569/Monsoon-rains-trigger-floods-in-Jakarta-Indonesia-paralysing-city-of-14-million.html?frame=2454864
Sea Level Rise
Indonesian as an Archipelago
Constituted of more than 17,000 islands in total
Has a coastline of over 80,000 km
Some places have sinking rate, like in Jakarta : subsidence 10-20 cm per year
Increase of sea level by 2 mm and up to 5 mm per year (Cruz et al., 2007).
The number of people flooded is up to 94 million an increase from 13 million (Wassmann et al., 2004).
Saltwater Intrusion and salty surface water recharge.
Unpredictable Weather Patterns
Shifting in the seasonal wind (monsoon) is affecting the rainfall.
There is an increase of rainfall in some regions
But there is also a decrease of rainfall in the other parts
Led to both flooding and drought
Adapted from Hulme and Sheard, 1999.
WORLD BANK
A wooden boat is seen stranded on the dry cracked riverbed of the Dawuhan Dam during drought season in Madiun, Indonesia's East Java province, October 5, 2015 in this picture taken by Antara Foto. REUTERS/Siswowidodo/Antara Foto
http://www.borneofutures.org/flooding.html
Aw
Am
Af
Deforestation and Forest Fire
As late as 1900 was Indonesia's land consisted of 84% forest from total land area.
Deforestation intensified in the late 1970s until now (most of which were illegal!).
Corruption and bribery makes it easy to do it all.
It has decreased from over 170 million to less than 100 million ha!
Biodiversity is threatened and availability of water storage and food is skyrocketing decreased.
Landslides and floods are happening in region where it has now no forest.
Mitigation
Indonesia has shown interest since 2006 about making a decree of commitment in reducing GHG emissions.
The most recent one was in 2015, it was recorded as the worst forest fires and peat land fires, as much as 261,000 hectares was burned and releasing 1.5 billion metric tonnes of CO2. Some are deliberately burned by palm oil plantation company.
Among many sectors, forest and peat lands are the most susceptible target, and therefore, extra attention is given and a plan is set up to reduce the emission from forest and peat lands up to 0.68 Gton CO2e
In 2009, in G-20 Pittsburgh, Indonesia has issued a decree promising to reduce GHG emissions by 26% with own effort, and 41% provided a financial and other supports by other countries. Thus the National Action Plan for Climate Change was created
Moratorium against forest fires and peat land to convert them into agriculture has been set on Monday 5th of December 2016, and on January 2016, an agency was set to restore 5 million acres of damaged peat land.
More Mitigation...
Indonesia relies heavily on fossil fuels such as oil and coal and it is also heavily subsidized. By 2023 Indonesia has committed to increase its portion of renewable energy by 23%.
Just recently Pertamina (state owned oil and gas company) has signed an agreement with Akuo Energy to build a power plant based on Solar PV, hydro and wind and oceanic energy
Collaboration with KTH Royal Institute of Technology Sweden to promote bioenergy in Indonesia with a goal of exchanging experience in the field of Renewable Energy
More Mitigation...
Social-Entrepeneurship in Indonesia has raised significantly in the past couple of years.
Greeneration - Waste 4 Change Indonesia is a socio-entrepreneurial community that focuses on waste management in Indonesia.
Empowerment to the youth about waste management - 3R (Reduce Reuse Recycle).
@adi_abyoga
@adi_abyoga
@adi_abyoga
Adaptation
Giant Sea-Wall in North Jakarta - a join collaboration mega project between Indonesia, the Netherlands, and South Korea.
More Adaptation
Indonesia has asked WWF to help protect and preserve the Orang Utan population in Borneo (Kalimantan) and Sumatra.
Gunung Leuser National Park in Aceh, Sumatra and Kayan Mentarang National Park in East Kalimantan.
Others like the food and water security, although it seems contradicting to the economy, import foods and clean water seems to solve the problem temporarily.
Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Indonesia.
Indonesian Seas Program
More Mitigation
In Jakarta, it is now under-construction a Jakarta Mass Rapid Transportation. It is a train that connects one stop to another under-ground.
At the moment, a feasibility study is being held for a construction of fast-train Jakarta-Bandung (will be expected in 3 years time of finish). that will also pioneered other fast-train system to other cities. Another in the short future project is Jakarta-Surabaya fast-train.
Although there might be a dispute with this.
Phase 1 - Enforcement and lifting of the existing flood wall along Jakarta's coastline.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Batavia,_Dutch_East_Indies#/media/File:Iacatra_year_1605-1608_drawn1675-1725.jpg/
dutchwatersector.com
dutchwatersector.com
Car Pooling like Uber in Indonesia
Green Building Certificate
Conclusion
At the moment, Indonesia is very vulnerable in the face of climate change.
Solutions from both sides have been seen and witnessed. Indonesia will see a better future.
Mitigation and Adaptation in Indonesia need consideration and enormous amount of cooperation from both individual and government.
In order to successfully implement the solution, the government has to realize that corruption should be ruled out from every layer of society.
An increase of awareness towards a better and safer future has been witnessed evidently by raising socio-enviro-entrepreneurship. One of the most important factors are education and awareness!
Thank you for your attention!
Question?
mrt jakarta wikipedia
bappenas.go.id
bappenas.go.id
@adi_abyoga
IPCC
UN MAP
www.indramayu.asia
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