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Priming vs. Framing
Transcript of Priming vs. Framing
Scheufele and Tewksbury: Disagree with McCombs and Shaw's original analysis that framing is a type of agenda-setting McCombs & Shaw, 1972 "The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media" : "The mass media set the agenda for each political campaign, influencing the salience of attitudes toward the political issues."
Public opinion is influenced by those issues -- and attributes of those issues -- that the media chooses to represent.
Later studies introduced idea of first-level & second-level agenda setting
Jasmine Turner What stories the media represents, how often, and what stories it does not represent
Long-term, media-wide process
Intentional or unintentional
Association EFFECT ON PUBLIC OPINION? Iyengar, Peters & Kinder "Experimental Demonstrations of the 'Not-So-Minimal' Consequences of TV News Programs" "Television news programs profoundly affect which problems viewers take to be important. The experiments also demonstrate that those problems prominently positioned in the evening news are accorded greater weight in viewers’ evaluations of presidential performance." "What's the nation's most important issue?" How the media defines or presents a topic
Frame as the story being told
Narrative, perspective, word choice
Every story has a frame. Some biased, some more neutral
More visible on an individual level, though trends in the framing of certain issues do occur EFFECTS ON PUBLIC OPINION? Research on Framing Kinder and Sanders' Survey Experiments (1990)
How does phrasing of questions affect results?
When questions on affirmative action were phrased with implications that unfair advantages were being afforded to minorities, respondents were more likely to report feeling more anger , as well as base their answers in concern on moral decay and intolerance of diversity
Affected "political novices" more
One Topic, Many Frames
"An infant left sleeping in his crib was bitten repeatedly by rats while his 16-year-old mother went to cash her welfare check."
"An eight-month-old South End boy was treated yesterday after being bitten by rats while sleeping in his crib. Tenants said that repeated requests for extermination had been ignored by the landlord. He claimed that the tenants did not properly dispose of their garbage."
"Rats bit eight-month old Michael Burns five times yesterday as he napped in his crib. Burns is the latest victim of a rat epidemic plaguing inner-city neighborhoods. A Public Health Department spokesperson explained that federal and state cutbacks forced short-staffing at rat control and housing inspection programs."
Charlotte Ryan, "Prime Time Activism" One Topic, Many Frames, continued Robert Entman, 1992 "Media Framing of Capital Punishment and Its Impact on Individuals’ Cognitive Responses." (2008)
"...The findings we have demonstrated — first, regarding the predominance of the innocence frame in media attention to the death penalty over the last decade and, second, regarding the cognitive effects of this innocence frame at the individual level — together offer explanation of the decline in aggregate-level public support for the death penalty witnessed in the United States over the past 10 years." Even scholars aren't quite sure how to classify these theories!