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Copy of The Endocrine System
Transcript of Copy of The Endocrine System
The Endocrine System
Negative feedback system
: helps prevent excessive hormone secretion by using one hormone to control another hormone. Pharmacotherapy uses negative feedback in the same way the body uses it.
Hormones maintain body in homeostasis
Classic Husband & Wife Team
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
Clinically Growth hormone and Anti-diuretic hormone are the most often used types of hormones
Hypothalamus & Pituitary Drugs
basal metabolic rate-
The baseline speed at which cells perform their functions
Figure 43.1 The endocrine system
Hormone pharmacotherapy is used for a variety of reasons:
ex: insulin, thyroid hormone
shrink hormone sensitive tumors
ex: estrogen-testicular cancer
ex: testosterone- breast cancer
ex: hydrocortisone- suppress inflammation
ex: estrogen/progesterone- prevent ovulation
Hormone antagonists-block endogenous action
ex: propylthiouracil (PTU)- blocks thyroid gland
Feedback control of the adrenal cortex
The Adrenal Glands
Responds to signals from the hypothalamus.
The pituitary gland releases hormones like:
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone),
GH (Growth Hormone) ,
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone),
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
Divided into two sides:
Anterior: adenohypophysis-glandular tissue
Posterior: neurohypophysis-nervous tissue
Anterior secretes ACTH, GH, TSH, FSH
Posterior secretes: ADH, oxytocin
Called the Master Gland-but works in coordination with Hypothalamus
Like Husband and Wife team.
The hypothalamus secretes
that travel via blood vessels and
direct the pituitary gland to release specific hormones-
-(Thyroid releasing hormone)
directs the pituitary to secrete
-(Thyroid stimulating hormone)
which then travels to the thyroid to stimulate release of thyroid hormones
The hypothalamus and pituitary are best visualized as an integrated unit - (like Lucy & Ricky)
Negative Feed back mechanism
growth hormone (GH) stimulates growth & metabolism. Deficiency can cause short stature - dwarfism
Begin therapy early in life - up to 6" possible.
Monitor for: hypothyroidism & hypoglycemia
synthetic GH antagonist - treats acromegaly- (also treats severe diarrhea)
synthetic of human anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)-used to treat diabetes insipidus
Monitor for: Water intoxication=seizures, coma
continued on next slide
Table 43.2 Selected Hypothalamic and Pituitary Drugs*
Secretes The hormone thyroxine
which speeds up metabolism and helps manage growth and development,
is converted to triiodothyronine
as it enters target cells
Hypothalamus and anterior pituitary regulate secretion through negative feedback loop-
-thyroid releasing - hypothalamus
-thryoid stimulating - pituitary
Hypofunction of thyroid:
Hyperfunction of thyroid:
Heated body temp
Monitor for: Opposite effect of what drug is meant to do
ex: Synthroid repalacement can lead to hyperthyroidism
Propylthiouracil (PTU) will cause hypothyroidism
Used to destroy thyroid
adrenocortical insufficiency needs replacement therapy.
Never stop abruptly.
tumors increased corticosteroids
The Adrenal Cortex (outer portion of gland) secretes corticosteroids- which are subdivided into-glucocorticoids & mineralcorticoids
regulates plasma volume by causing Na+ reabsorption
and water retention. Part of the Renin-Angiotensin-aldosterone pathway
Cortisol AKA Hydrocortisone-
promotes glucose synthesis to prepare the body for long term stress, also suppresses the inflammatory and immune response.
The Adrenal cortex can shrink and stop functioning when exogenous hormones are used.
Abrupt stoppage of exogenous hormones can lead to life threatening shock -
All adrenal replacement therapy Must be weaned.