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Copy of The Endocrine System

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ana couceiro

on 18 January 2015

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Transcript of Copy of The Endocrine System

Unit 8: Chapters 43-44
The Endocrine System
Negative feedback system
: helps prevent excessive hormone secretion by using one hormone to control another hormone. Pharmacotherapy uses negative feedback in the same way the body uses it.
Hormones maintain body in homeostasis
Classic Husband & Wife Team
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
Clinically Growth hormone and Anti-diuretic hormone are the most often used types of hormones
Hypothalamus & Pituitary Drugs
Increases
basal metabolic rate-
The baseline speed at which cells perform their functions
Thyroid Hormones
Figure 43.1 The endocrine system

Hormone pharmacotherapy is used for a variety of reasons:
Replacement therapy
ex: insulin, thyroid hormone
Cancer chemotherapy
shrink hormone sensitive tumors
ex: estrogen-testicular cancer
ex: testosterone- breast cancer
Produce an
exaggerated
response
ex: hydrocortisone- suppress inflammation
ex: estrogen/progesterone- prevent ovulation
Hormone antagonists-block endogenous action
ex: propylthiouracil (PTU)- blocks thyroid gland
Prototype Drug
Propylthiouracil (PTU)

Feedback control of the adrenal cortex

The Adrenal Glands
Pituitary gland
Responds to signals from the hypothalamus.
The pituitary gland releases hormones like:
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone),
GH (Growth Hormone) ,
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone),
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

Divided into two sides:
Anterior: adenohypophysis-glandular tissue
Posterior: neurohypophysis-nervous tissue

Anterior secretes ACTH, GH, TSH, FSH
Posterior secretes: ADH, oxytocin

Called the Master Gland-but works in coordination with Hypothalamus
Like Husband and Wife team.
Hypothalamus


The hypothalamus secretes
releasing hormones
that travel via blood vessels and
direct the pituitary gland to release specific hormones-
Ex:
TRH
-(Thyroid releasing hormone)
directs the pituitary to secrete
TSH
-(Thyroid stimulating hormone)
which then travels to the thyroid to stimulate release of thyroid hormones
T4
and
T3

The hypothalamus and pituitary are best visualized as an integrated unit - (like Lucy & Ricky)



Negative Feed back mechanism

Somatropin:
growth hormone (GH) stimulates growth & metabolism. Deficiency can cause short stature - dwarfism
Begin therapy early in life - up to 6" possible.
Monitor for: hypothyroidism & hypoglycemia
Octreatide:
synthetic GH antagonist - treats acromegaly- (also treats severe diarrhea)
Vasopressin:
synthetic of human anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)-used to treat diabetes insipidus
Monitor for: Water intoxication=seizures, coma
continued on next slide

Table 43.2 Selected Hypothalamic and Pituitary Drugs*

Diabetes In
sip
i
du
s:
sip
alot -
D
ilute
U
rine
Thyroid Gland
Secretes The hormone thyroxine
(T4)
which speeds up metabolism and helps manage growth and development,
T4
is converted to triiodothyronine
(T3)
as it enters target cells

Hypothalamus and anterior pituitary regulate secretion through negative feedback loop-
TRH
-thyroid releasing - hypothalamus
TSH
-thryoid stimulating - pituitary

Hypofunction of thyroid:
low HR
weakness
weight gain
cold intolerance
Hyperfunction of thyroid:
Increased HR
anxiety
weight loss
Heated body temp

Monitor for: Opposite effect of what drug is meant to do
ex: Synthroid repalacement can lead to hyperthyroidism
Propylthiouracil (PTU) will cause hypothyroidism
Used to destroy thyroid
adrenocortical insufficiency needs replacement therapy.
Never stop abruptly.
Cushings syndrome
tumors increased corticosteroids
Adrenal Cortex

The Adrenal Cortex (outer portion of gland) secretes corticosteroids- which are subdivided into-glucocorticoids & mineralcorticoids
Mineralcorticoids:
Aldosterone-
regulates plasma volume by causing Na+ reabsorption
and water retention. Part of the Renin-Angiotensin-aldosterone pathway
Glucocoticoids:
Cortisol AKA Hydrocortisone-
promotes glucose synthesis to prepare the body for long term stress, also suppresses the inflammatory and immune response.

The Adrenal cortex can shrink and stop functioning when exogenous hormones are used.
Abrupt stoppage of exogenous hormones can lead to life threatening shock -
adrenal insufficiency.

All adrenal replacement therapy Must be weaned.
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