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Causal Comparative Research Design

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on 14 April 2014

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Transcript of Causal Comparative Research Design

Causal Comparative Research Design
Steps of Causal Comparative Design
Strengths
If laboratory control for the purpose of research is not practical, expensive, Causal Comparative is the perfect option.
Useful information on phenomena which had happened.
What is Research?
Research is ''a systematic approach to searching for answers to questions''
(Hatch & Lazaraton, 1991, p.9)
What is Causal Comparative Design?
A causal-comparative study is a study in which the researcher determines the cause, or reason, for preexisting differences in groups of individuals.
1. Select the problem
The first step in formulating a problem in causal-comparative research is usually to identify and define the particular phenomena of interest
2. Select Sample & Instrument
The most important task in selecting a sample for a causal-comparative study is to define carefully the characteristic to be studied and then to select groups.
There are no limits to the kinds of instruments that can be used in a causal-comparative study.
Purpose
Attempts to find the cause and explanation for existing differences between groups.



Quantitative Method Designs
Descriptive
Correlational
Causal Comparative
Experimental
4.Data Analysis
Characteristics of Causal Comparative Design
Examples 1
How does preschool attendance affect social maturity at the end of the first grade?
Examples 2
How does having a working mother affect a child’s school absenteeism?
non manipulated non controlled
Not Randomly Assigned
Related groups
At least 2 groups
Weaknesses
– Lack of random assignment.
– Focus on standardized test performance.
– There is NO manipulation.

3. Design and Procedure

Casual-comparative research cannot definitively determine that one variable has caused something to occur, researchers should instead report the findings of causal comparative studies as a
possible effect
or
possible cause
of an occurrence.
• Select two groups that differ on some independent variable
• One group possesses some characteristic that the other does not.
• Each group possesses the characteristic but it should be in differing amount
• The independent variable must be clearly operationally defined
(Airasian, P., Mills, G. E., & Gray, L. (2006) Educational research, Chapter 12)

What is Quantitative Method?
Quantitative research aims at (causal) explanation. It answers primarily to why? –questions

based on the idea that social phenomena can be quantified, measured and expressed numerically.
What is the effect of years of experience on job satisfaction of teachers?
Example 3
Non Manipulated Independent Variables
For Example :
Age, Sex, Ethnicity, “Learning style” , Socioeconomic status (SES) ,Parent educational level , Family environment , Type of school attended
At least two different groups are compared on a dependent variable
Individuals are not randomly assigned to groups.
The study is involving an event or situation that has already occurred with groups that are already formed.
-Group of students attending preschool
- Group of students not attending
-the mother works group
-the mother doesn't work group
-Low Level
-High Level
(two groups that differ on years of experience)
Characteristics of Causal Comparative Design
Retrospective
(about past) (basic): starts with an effect and seeks possible causes

Prospective
(about future) (variation): starts with a cause and investigates its effects on some variable
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