Send the link below via email or IMCopy
Present to your audienceStart remote presentation
- Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
- People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
- This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
- A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
- Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article
Do you really want to delete this prezi?
Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.
Make your likes visible on Facebook?
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.
The Devil Wears (Counterfeit) Prada - Presentation
Transcript of The Devil Wears (Counterfeit) Prada - Presentation
Devil Wears (Counterfeit) Prada - A Study of Antecedents and Outcomes of Attitudes Towards Counterfeits of Luxury Brands
Ian Phau and Min Thea - Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia
Potential Further Research
Research Paper appeared in:
Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26/1 (2009), page 15-27
Purpose of the Research Paper:
How social and personality factors influence Chinese consumers' attitudes towards counterfeits of luxury brands
How these social and personality factors influence purchase intention
About the authors:
Ian Phau: Professor at Curtin University, Perth, Australia. Specialized in Consumer Behaviour and Brand Management
Min Teah: Pursued her PhD while writing this Research Paper
Counterfeiting is responsible for at least $200 billion a year in lost jobs, taxes and sales (Furnham and Valgeirsson, 2007)
20% of goods sold in the Chinese market are counterfeit goods (Alcock et al., 2003; Bian and Veloutsou, 2007)
The trading of luxury goods in China has proved to be a lucrative market as it has been noted as the world's third largest consumer of high-end fashions, accessories, and other luxury products (Ernst & Young China, 2005; Chadha, 2007)
The market is recorded as generating more than $2 billion in sales a year and is projected to continue growing an estimated 25% annually (Ernst & Young China, 2005; Embassy of the People's Republic of China, 2005)
It is reported by Chinese officials that counterfeiting is a staggering $16 billion business annually (Bian and Veloutsou, 2007)
Methodology - Data Collection
Data was collected through a mall intercept at a major shopping complex in Shanghai, China
Shoppers were asked to participate in a self-administered questionnaire
The interviewers asked every fifth individual that crossed a designated spot
Methodology - Survey Instrument
The survey instrument was developed in English and translated into Chinese, and then back translated into English
Instrument consisted of five sections:
1) Sections A & B - Measured social factors and personality factors
2) Section C - Examined attitudes and purchase intentions towards
counterfeits of luxury brands
3) Section D - Comprised items regarding purchasing habits of
counterfeit products and brands
4) Section E - Comprised demographic information of respondents
Methodology - Findings
270 Questionnaires in total
68 Questionnaires discarded
The remaining 202 questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS V.14
SPSS = Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
Program was developed by IBM in 1968
Used for statistical regression
Main Theories - Overview
Definitions of Counterfeits:
Counterfeits are reproductions of a trademarked brand (Cordell et al., 1996)
Counterfeits are closely similar or identical to genuine articles. This includes packaging, labelling and trademarks, to intentionally pass off as the original products (Kay, 1990; Ang et al., 2001; Chow, 2000)
Counterfeiting and piracy are in essence the same since they are both the reproduction of identical copies of authentic products (Lai and Zaichkowsky, 1999)
Main Theories - Attitudes Towards Counterfeiting
Counterfeits are closely related with the overall 'image' of a brand and its products (prestige, status symbol)
Variables affecting this 'image' might encourage or discourage consumers to buy counterfeit products
Variables mentioned in the research paper:
- Try before you buy
- Situational Ethics
Phau and Teah state that "in view of Chinese consumers, attitudes towards counterfeits of luxury brands can be influenced by a number of antecedents":
- Social Factors (Normative and Informational susceptibility towards social influence and collectivism)
- Personality Factors (Value consciousness, integrity, personal gratification, novelty seeking, and status
Main Theories - Antecedents (Social Factors)
H1a: Normative and information susceptibility have a negative influence on consumer attitudes towards counterfeits of luxury brands
Social influence refers to the effect that others have on an individual consumer's behaviour (Ang et al., 2001)
Two common forms of consumer susceptibility to social influences:
1) Normative susceptibility (= expectations of what would impress others)
2) Information susceptibility (= decision based on expert opinions of others)
Negative consequences = negative attitudes towards counterfeits
H1b: Collectivism has a positive influence on consumer attitudes towards counterfeits of luxury brands
1) Is target specific
2) Degree varies depending on geographical location
3) Tends to slow down economic development (Hofstede, 1991)
4) Major factor to positively influence attitudes towards pirated products and counterfeits
Main Theories - Antecedents (Personality Factors)
H1c: Value consciousness has a positive influence on consumer attitudes towards counterfeits of luxury brands
H1d: Novelty seeking has a positive influence on consumer attitudes towards counterfeits of luxury brands
Novelty seeking is the curiosity of individuals to seek variety and difference (Hawkins et al., 1980; Wang et al., 2005)
H1e: Integrity has a negative influence on consumer attitudes towards counterfeits of luxury brands
H1f: Personal gratification has a negative influence on consumer attitudes towards counterfeits of luxury brands
Personal gratification is the need for a sense of accomplishment, social recognition, and the desire to enjoy the finer things in life (Ang et al., 2001; Wang et al., 2005)
H1g: Status consumption has a negative influence on consumer attitudes towards counterfeits of luxury brands
Status consumption has long been defined as the purchase, use, display and consumption of goods and services as a means of gaining status (Veblen, 1899; Packard, 1959; Mason, 1981; Scitovsky, 1992; Eastman et al., 1997)
Main Theories - Overview
Main Theories - Purchase Intention (TOPB)
H2: There is a significant relationship between attitude and purchase intention towards counterfeits of luxury brands
Theory of Planned Behaviour (TOPB):
1) Purchase behaviour is determined by the purchase intention, which is in turn determined by attitudes (Fishbein
and Ajzen, 1975)
2) Attitudes towards behaviour instead of towards the proiduct are noted to be a better predictor of behaviour
(Fishbei, 1967; Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975; Lutz, 1975; Yi, 1990; Penz and Stöttinger, 2005)
3) The opportunities and resources, such as the accessibility of counterfeit products, must be present before
purchase behaviour can be performed. Without such circumstances, regardless of how favorable intentions are, it
would be difficult to perform a purchase (Chang, 1998)
H3: There is a significant relationship between social and personality factors (...) and purchase intention towards
counterfeits of luxury brands
Social and personality antecedents have long been established to have an influence on consumer decision making towards purchase intention (Miniard and Cohen, 1983)
Main Theories - Final Hypothesis
Buyers of counterfeits of luxury brands will perceive their actions in a more favorable light, and are known to have some degree of loyalty towards counterfeit goods (Tom et al., 1998). As such, Phau and Teah presented the following hypothesis:
H4: Buyers of counterfeits of luxury brands have more positive attitudes towards counterfeits of luxury brands than
Normative susceptibility is shown to influence consumer perceptions of counterfeits and purchase intentions. Consumers may possess the desire to own luxury brands to impress others. Due to the high prices of the originals, people resort to counterfeits.
There could be less inclination for Chinese consumers if the prices of originals would be lower - although this could erode the prestige and exclusivity of the brands
Because of decreasing ability to discern between counterfeits and originals, luxury firms and advertisers should ensure that there is a difference in quality, functionality and reliability
Information susceptibility shows that consumers who rely on the expert opinion of others on their purchases, are less inclined to purchase counterfeits (status consumption)
Contrary to previous studies (Ang et al., 2001; Wang et al., 2005), collectivism did not play a role in influencing consumer attitudes and purchase intention towards counterfeits of luxury brands
Phau and Teah's advice regarding integrity:
1) Companies of luxury brands to focus on internal integrity, and to advertise in a way that it highlights the fact that
counterfeits are not of the same quality as the original products
2) To educate consumers on ethics and morals, starting at primary schools and continuing during employment at a
Potential Further Research
Increase the geographical area of the initial research
Research the consumer's view upon non-luxury, well-known brands (B-brands)
Relate the comprehensive economic paradigm to the purchases of counterfeits: does China's economic growth (in terms of GDP) directly affect Chinese customers in their choice for counterfeits or originals?
Perform the same questionnaire again in order to collect data which could be used for a regression to the mean
What is the current status of Chinese counterfeit products being sold on the internet by people from across the globe? Does this affect the variables of the research?
Are there benefits in the current situation of Chinese consumers purchasing counterfeits rather than originals?
Ang, S.H., Cheng, P.S., Lim, E.A.C. and Tambyah, S.K. (2001), "Spot the difference: consumer responses towards counterfeits", Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 219-35.
Bian, X. and Veloutsou, C. (2007), "Consumers' attitudes regarding non-deceptive counterfeit brands in the UK and China", Brand Management, Vol. 14 No. 3, pp. 211-22.
Chadha, R. (2007), "From Mao suits to Armani", Advertising Age, Vol. 78 No. 2, pp. 27-36.
Chow, D.C.K. (200), "Enforcement against counterfeiting in the People's Republic of China", Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business, Vol. 20 No. 3, p. 447.
Cordell, V.V., Wongtada, N. and Kieschnick, R.L. Jr (1996), "Counterfeit purchase intentions: role of lawfulness attitudes and prodcut traits as determinants", Journal of Business Research, Vol. 35, pp. 41-53.
Eastman, J.K., Fredenberger, B., Campbell, D. and Calvert, S. (1997), "The relationship between status consumption and materialism: a cross-cultural comparison if Chinese, Mexican, and American students", Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Winter.
Embassy of the People's Republic of China (2005), "China to be top consumer of luxury brands: Goldman Sachs", available at: www.china.org.cn/english/BAT/151600.htm
Ernst & Young China (2005), "China: The New Lap of Luxury, Global Retail and Consumer Products", Ernst & Young China, Bejing.
Fishbein, M. (1967), "Readings in Attitude Theory and Measurement", Wiley, New York, NY.
Fishbein, M. and Ajzen, I. (1975), "Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory of Research", Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.
Furnham, A. and Valgeirsson, H. (2007), "The effect of life values and materialism on buying counterfeit products", The Journal of Socio-Economics, Vol. 36, pp. 677-85.
Hawkins, D.I., Coney, K.A. and Best, R.J. (1980), "Consumer Behavior: Implications for MArketing Strategy, Business Publications, Dallas, TX.
Hofstede, G. (1991), "Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind", McGraw-Hill, London.
Kay, H. (1990), "Fake's progress", Management Today, July, pp.54-8.
Lai, K.K.Y. and Zaichkowsky, J.L. (1999), "Brand imitation: do the Chinese have different views?", Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Vol. 16 No. 2, pp. 179-92.
Lutz, R.J. (1975), "Changing brand attitudes through modification of cognitive structure", Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 1, pp. 49-59.
Mason, R.S. (1981), "Conspicuous Consumption: A Study of Exceptional Consumer Behavior", St. Martin's Press, New York, NY.
Miniard, P.W. and Cohen, J.B. (1983), "Modeling personal and normative influences on behavior", Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 10 No. 2.
Packard, V. (1959), "The Status Seekers", Simon & Schuster, New York, NY.
Penz, E. and Stöttinger, B. (2005), "Forget the 'real' thing - take the copy! An Explanatory model for the volitional purchase of counterfeit products", Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 31, pp. 568-75.
Scitovsky, T. (1992), "The Joyless Economy: The Psychology of Human Satisfaction", revised ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Tom, G., Garibaldi, B., Zeng, Y. and Pilcher, J. (1998), "Consumer demand for counterfeit goods", Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 15 No. 5, pp. 405-21.
Veblen, T.B. (1899), "The Theory of the Leisure Class", Houghton-Mifflin, Boston, MA.
Wang, F., Zhang, H., Zang, H. and Ouyang, M. (2005), "Purchasing pirated software: an initial examination of Chinese consumers", Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 22 No. 6, pp. 340-51
Yi, Y. (1990), "The indirect effects of advertisements designed to change product attribute beliefs", Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 7, pp. 47-64
Anna Kerola (B00260917)
Fangzhou Liu (B00259698)
Tim 't Hooft (B00260268)
Cunzhu Shi (B00260288)