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Transcript of Resilience
Resilience Across Culture
Cultural Guidelines for Parenting, Conduct, and Moral Values
Parents mention in studies on resilience that they must instill certain values in their children as they grow up
Cultural norms and values become so natural for people they are still practiced, although they may not be normally right
Self-Regulation Teaches and Practices
Meaning-Making Systems of Belief
Individual and Family Social Support
Religions and cultures provide support to individuals and their families
How Schools, Communities, and Nations Can Promote Resilience Through Cultural Strategies
There are numerous strategies for promoting success in minority communities, and many of which involve cultural aspects
Many schools, workplaces, and even media outlets promote resilience by encouraging acculturation
The Immigrant Paradox
First generation immigrant youth have better resilience than later born generations
By: Hilary, Vanessa, Orry, and Devyn
The resilience pioneers' goal was to improve the odds for positive development in young people whose lives were threatened by risk. They hoped to learn about resilience in order to promote it for those who would not be able to make it on their own.
Testing Resilience Theory Through Intervention: Moving Toward translational Synergy
Investigators are expanding interventions to consider multiple levels of function and the interplay across systems and system levels
Measures: Track the Positive as Well as the Problems
Based approaches put emphasis on the importance of looking at the positive aspects of intervention and outcome, as well as any negative predictors or outcomes that are being tracked
It is valid to believe that interventions that will lead to goals like reduced violence, delinquency, substance abuse, depression, suicide, or other mental health problems might begin with observable improvements in positive behaviors by children or parents.
Resource Focused: Increase Assets
Another basic strategy for intervention is the addition of resources, or access to resources. For example: emergency relief efforts that bring things such as water, food, shelter, and medical care after a disaster strikes
In the cases of learning, adding things such as access to preschool, after school programs, tutoring, or computers, will help equalize opportunities between advantaged and disadvantaged children.
Sometimes the problem isn't due to the availability of the resources, but rather the access itself to the existing resources
Resilient investigators wanted to know how to promote positive outcomes. Because of this, a lot of their work was focusing on predicting the positive criteria.
Children develop in the context of culture
Cultures can provide guidance for dealing with adversities in life and promote resilience
Evidence from diverse studies across cultures and communities of resilience point toward protective factors
Risks of Culture, Religion, and Spirituality
Culture can serve both as a risk to adversity and of protection and resilience
Developmental Tasks in the Context of Culture
Parents develop exceptions as to what it means when their children do well in life
These expectations must reflect local norms and beliefs
Parents, in culture, share ideas as to what it means to be successful
Culture and Development
Human development psychology has been influenced by culture
How parents understand their child's future cultural role is not described as a cultural niche
How Culture, Religion, and Spirituality Promote Resilience
All cultures and religions produce ideas and ways of living to deal with the hardships of life
The concept of faith repeatedly emerges in studies of resilience
Some religions provide connection to divine through a relationship
Most attachment relationships in childhood are informed with parents
Positive Role Models and Bonds to Pro-Social Mentors and Peers
Religions and ethnic groups provide mentors that can foster resilience in times of turmoil
Independence practices have been linked to better physical and mental health
Religions and cultures offer a particular worldview on life
Traumatic experiences can often challenge this belief system
Faith can provide comfort through the belief of a higher calling
Opportunities for Mastery
Religions provide the opportunity of experiencing a spiritual journey, pilgrimage, or other questions
An individual's achievements from these challenges is widely supported and congratulated
Cultural Practices, Rituals, and Traditions
Traditions found within cultures and religions often promote positive development and resilience
Most religions perform ceremonies for significant events in an individual's life that can produce challenges
Dangers of Religion and Ethnic Identity: A cautionary Note
Although cultural and religious beliefs can be beneficial in an individual's life, it can be twisted into a dangerous form
Violence and discrimination can evolve from ethnic or religious conflict
A Resilience Framework
Chapter eleven was about presenting a general resilience framework for action, highlighting how thinking has changed and also providing concrete examples of strategies built on a resilience frame of reference.
The framework for resilience is made up of five components:
Mission: Frame Positive Goals
Parent training interventions were designed to improve child behavior through behavioral techniques that would usually start by having the parents "catch the child being good". The parents would then reinforce the positive behaviors with social reinforcements. The idea behind this was to move the overall tone of the parent and child interaction away from interactions that would be negative
Common targets of prevention include reducing violence, symptoms, or risky behaviors.
Models: Positive Factors, Influences, and Actions
Models to guide practice and policy based on a resilience framework include positive ingredients and processes, expanding well beyond models limited to risks and vulnerabilities that lead to problem outcomes
When positive outcomes are targeted or added, it is important not to forget that exposure to risk, vulnerability, and problems also matter. Protective influences are considered along with vulnerabilities.
One of the ways of promoting resilience is to prevent a risk that is well known from occuring even at all.
Another way is to lessen the effects of a risk factor.
A third approach in promoting resilience is to prevent or reduce the harm that the risk factor could have on positivity or in influencing a child's life
Methods: Prevent, Promote, Protect
There are three basic strategies to promote resilience in diverse contexts of threat or risk to human development in resilience research. These are to focus on risk, resources, or adaptive systems. Strategic timing which will point towards the best opportunities when the conditions for change are more favorable is important as well in resilience research.
Risk Focused: Prevent or Reduce Risk or Adversity
Effective parents and friends will usually try to lower the amount of trauma or risk exposure of people they care about in multiple ways.
The Parents must keep in mind that the children need to learn how to manage situations without always relying on their parents.
A conclusion across many risk and resilience studies is that dose matters. This means reducing the exposure to the dose by taking action before, during, or after the trauma and disaster strike.
Adaptive System Focused: Restore, Harness, or Mobilize the Power of Human Adaptive Systems
The focus of the third major strategy is on restoring, harnessing, or mobilizing the most powerful known adaptive systems to help in human resilience and development. This is based on the main insight from resilience science, the idea is that most resilience arises from the operation of the fundamental adaptive systems, which are the legacy of human biological and cultural evolution
For example, in the aftermath of a disaster, it is essential to make sure that children have a care giver at hand.
Even having a temporary school to squeeze by in a desperate time can be a symbol of hope and provide a message that recover is under way.
Having a loving and capable family is essential whether it is by foster or not. There have been studies done to show the advantage of foster care in a family over institutional care. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project has done a study on this.
Multiple Levels, Approaches, and Disciplines
Resilience research has increasingly gathered a multi-level perspective which recognizes that individual development comes from the interactions of many systems across levels which come from both within, and outside the person
Windows of Opportunity: Strategic Timing
Resilience findings suggest that both timing and targeting of interventions are important
Observations of naturally occurring resilience suggest that interventions could be timed and targeted strategically.
Sensitive periods are described as the development periods of heightened neural plasticity
Problem behaviors begin to rise most in early adolescence, this is often viewed as a "vulnerable window".
Adolescents with the benefits of a caring family and community are provided with opportunities to develop their talents and apply themselves to pursuits with meaning. These types of people will usually do well and go into the world with passion and energy into areas like advanced academics, work, sports, close friendships, and romance.
The years of change going from adolescence and early adulthood are also associated with systematic changes in the development of the brain as well as changes in cognitive control studies.
Translational synergy is the mutual benefits that accumulate to both science and practice.
Practitioners who help design interventions from the outset can offer wisdom from their field on what is important, practical, and feasible.
Scientists who collaborate in a transactional design process will be able to bring knowledge from their experiences in literature and research. This can include strategies for measurement, and evaluation.