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Roaring 20s

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Hyder Kadhim

on 12 February 2013

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Transcript of Roaring 20s

New Ways to Pay! Henry Ford and the Model T American culture underwent a rapid and radical change in the 1920s. Signs of this change were everywhere-in the music and fashions of the day, in the habits and pastimes of Americans, in art and literature of the country's most creative minds. Large population shifts and new technologies transformed the nation from rural to urban and traditional to modern. The first cars appeared in the 1800s but were a luxury until the 1900s
Henry Ford introduced the Model T in 1908
Ford uses an assembly line production system in which an item being built moves along a conveyor belt to various work stations.
Productivity of automobiles increased by 60% during the 1920s! Explosion of new products, new experiences and forms of mass production
New manufacturing processes made products cost efficient and accessible to the middle class
Introduction of new electrical appliances (Fridges, vacuums, radios) New Roles For Women A New Economic Era! Advertising The New Consumer During the early 1900s consumers had to pay for items in full
The 1920s introduced the idea of installment buying (paying for an item over time in small payments)
Consumers would buy goods on credit, by borrowing money Advertising gave wide exposure to consumer products
Companies advertised through magazines and the radio
The increase in demand for cars also caused an increased demand all of the materials needed to create cars (steel, rubber, glass and all other automobile materials)
Introduced many new jobs as repair shops, filling stations, motels and restaurants began popping up all over the U.S.
Accessibility of cars made it easier for people to travel farther to and from work, and resulted in the growth of suburbs
Freedom to travel also gave birth to a new tourist industry in the U.S. New Opportunities After gaining the right to vote with the 19th amendment women began getting elected to state and local offices
The economic boom that occurred in the 1920s presented many more job opportunities for women
The number of women attending college greatly increased New Family Roles The basic rules that defined proper female behavior was beginning to change
The primary role of women within American society was still to care for the home and their children
However, more women sought a greater sense of equality in their relationships with men The Flapper The term flapper refers to young women in the 1920s who defied traditional ideas of proper dress and behavior, and suggested a certain lifestyle of great independence and freedom
Flappers shocked society by chopping off their hair, raising their hemlines, wearing makeup, smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol and go dancing in night clubs Prohibition Harding and Coolidge Presidencies Cars Crash Into the Economy! Warren G. Harding Harding felt that in order for the U.S. to recover from WWI the nation needed "healing, restoration, and normalcy"
After the horrors of WWI, violent labor conflicts and fears of Communist revolution..normalcy sounded good to many Americans
Harding's economic policy revolved around the idea that the government should have less control of business
To help achieve his pro-business goal, Harding sought to reduce the federal budget and reduce taxes on the wealthiest Americans
Harding attempted to help American farmers by raising the price on foreign grown farm products Calvin Coolidge Scandal and Sudden Death The end of Harding's presidency was riddled by scandal
The worst scandal involved Harding's Secretary of Interior, Albert Fall
Fall had accepted bribes in return for allowing oil companies to drill federal oil reserves on a piece of federal land (This became known as the Teapot Dome Scandal)
Shortly after the Teapot Dome Scandal, Harding collapsed while giving a speech in Seattle and died later that night After Harding's death Calvin Coolidge became the thirtieth President of the United States
Coolidge had a reputation for being honest which helped him deal with the scandals that had soured Harding's presidency
Coolidge's presidency was characterized by his unshakable faith in the power of business and industry
Coolidge felt that the role of government should be strictly limited
He also believed in lowering taxes and reducing the federal budget What Lead to Prohibition? To many alcohol was seen as a destructive force in families and marriages
Women played a strong role in bringing about prohibition with the emergence of groups like the Woman's Christian Temperance Union
Factory owners also supported prohibition because they felt that it was a way to prevent accidents and increase the production of their workers Steps to Prohibition By 1917 more than half of the states had passed some form of law restricting alcohol use
The 18th Amendment made it illegal to manufacture, transport or sell alcohol in the U.S. and was enacted into a law as the National Prohibition Act of 1920 The Rise of Organized Crime Prohibition gave rise to huge smuggling operations and organized crime
Illegal bars that served alcohol called speakeasies were established across America
People who smuggled liquor into the U.S. through seaports and from Canada,or made it on their own became know as bootleggers
Bootleggers made a fortune through illegally distributing alcohol and used intimidation and/or bribery to get ride of law enforcement that threatened them
The most notorious bootlegger of the Prohibition-era was Chicago's Al Capone The Harlem Renaissance The Great Migration Segregation laws, racial violence and little economic opportunity made life in the South very difficult for African Americans
The outbreak of WWI caused a sudden demand for war equipment and supplies, and employers in northern factories eagerly looked to the south for a new supply of workers
These lead to a mass migration of African Americans to the major cities in the north known as the Great Migration Harlem New York City was one of the northern cities that African Americans moved to in large numbers
About 200,000 African Americans lived in NYC by the early 1920s, most lived in a single neighborhood named Harlem
To many of these African Americans it was their first experience living outside of the south and felt a strong sense of racial pride and identity
Harlem became the center of a great African American arts movement in the U.S. that became known as the Harlem Renaissance Music Harlem was a vital center for jazz
Jazz blended blended several different musical forms from the lower south into a wholly original American form of music that was new, different, and very exciting
People flocked to Harlem to hear famous musicians like Paul Robeson, Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, and Bessie Smith Art and Literature African American artists also won fame and recognition during the Harlem Renaissance
They focused on the much of their work on the experiences of African Americans
Famous artists included William H. Johnson, Aaron Douglas, and Jacob Lawrence A great number of African American artists poets and writers burst onto the scene during the Harlem Renaissance
A common theme amongst these writers was defiance or resistance in the face of white prejudice
One of the most famous writers of the Harlem Renaissance was Langston Hughes
Hughes wrote of black defiance, but also wrote of hope as well Fundamentalism vs. Modernism Rise of Fundamentalists The values of many urban Americans of the 1920s greatly varied from the traditional values of the rural Americans
The uncertainty that accompanied the changing times caused many Americans to turn to religion
Many of these beliefs were based on literal interpretations of the bible which was known as fundamentalism
One of the most popular fundamentalists was former baseball player and ordained minister Billy Sunday Conflicts Over Values VS As fundamentalism gained strength in the 1920s, it came into sharper conflict with the teachings of modern science, particularly Darwin's theory of evolution
Fundamentalists worked hard to ensure that evolution wasn't taught in public schools, and were successful in several states
One of these states was Tennessee, where a 1925 law made it a crime to teach evolution to students The Scopes Trial A teacher in Tennessee by name of John Scopes agreed to violate the law and have himself arrested
The case went to trial and gained national attention and was a clear reflection of the tremendous culture clash that was occurring during the 1920s Mass Entertainment
and Leisure Time The Radio One of the driving forces behind the emergence of the new American popular culture was the radio
The radio made it so Americans across the country could hear the same news and music, and created a shared culture that included a growing number of Americans Movies Movies were another form of mass entertainment that exploded in popularity during the 1920s
Prior to the 20s most movies were very short and simple, but by 1928 many advanced film making techniques had been created
Films with sound were introduced for the first time in 1928
In 1929 filmmaker Walt Disney introduced America to a new kind of movie star in the film Steamboat Willie, a cartoon character named Mickey Mouse
Like the radio, movies provided Americans across the country with a shared experience An Era of Heroes The freedom to travel and new shared experiences brought about by the radio and movies gave birth to the American celebrity
One of the most well known film stars of this era was silent film actor Charlie Chaplin
Charles Lindbergh was the first person to complete a non-stop flight across the Atlantic, and a year later Amelia Earhart became the first female pilot to accomplish this amazing task
The radio propelled sports into a whole new as millions of Americans tuned into broadcasts of ballgames and prize fights
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