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8D Astronomy-Edward Ahn
Transcript of 8D Astronomy-Edward Ahn
The Study of the Universe WHY? To Study Growing Seasons (Farming) To Build the First Calendars
To Mark the Passage of Time
What are calendars? A System of Timekeeping Based on the Observation of the Solar System The Famous Mayan Calendar The Elements of a Calendar Year
the time required for the earth to rotate once around the sun a division of the year that is based on the orbit of the moon around the Earth the time required for Earth to rotate once on its axis History
Geocentric Universe or "Ptolemaic Theory"
Ptolemy (Greek 140 CE) Copernicus (Polish 1543) Heliocentric Universe from Copernican Revolution
Tycho Brahe (Danish late-1500s) Brahe's Theory Used Large Instruments to Accurately Measure Observations Johannes Kepler (late-1500s to early-1600s) Brahe's Assistant, but Did Not Agree with Theories Three Laws of Planetary Motion Galileo Galilei (1609) Used an Early Telescope Discovered Four Moons of Jupiter, Planets were Physical Bodies Sir Isaac Newton (1687) Law of Inertia/Universal Gravity Edwin Hubble (1920s) Proved that Other Galaxies Existed other than Milky Way Better Telescopes, Computers, Spacecraft are Made Even to This Day from Hubble Telescopes Optical Telescopes Reflecting Telescope Distorts Image (inaccurate) Larger Curved Mirror=More Magnification Accurately Focused Can Collaborate with Other Telescopes Nonoptical Telescopes Refracting Telescope Detects Invisible Radiation
Ultraviolet Waves Electromagnetic Spectrum Spectrum of All Frequencies/Wavelengths of Electromagnetic Radiation Chandra X-Ray Observatory: Detects X-Rays Telescopes are used to Observe Universes! Wait, but how did the Universe Form? Colors of Stars Can be Used to Determine Elements in the Star Can be Used to Determine Temperature of the Star Spectrums Continuous Spectrum Shows All Colors (Lightbulb) Absorption Spectrum Black lines of Continuous Spectrum Emission Lines certain wavelengths of light (or colors) arae given off by hot gases Brightness of Stars Absolute Magnitude
Apparent Magnitude Brightness of a Star from Earth Brightness of a Star from the Same Distance of Earth Distance and Stars Light Year: the distance light travels in a year Parallax: star's shift as Earth revolves around the Sun Stars Move All the Time Polaris (from Earth) doesn't move Types of Stars Main-Sequence Stars no change in size nuclear fusion in core Giants & Supergiants
Redgiant: 10x Bigger than Sun
Supergiant: 100x Bigger than Sun Result of No Hydrogen Left for Fusion White Dwarf No Energy is Generated Small, Hot Result of Leftover Center of Older Star H-R Diagram Supernova gigantic explosion in which a massive star collapses & throws its outer layers into space star that collapsed under gravity to the point that the electrons & protons have smashed together to form neutrons Neutron Star Pulsar Spinning Neutron Star that Emits Waves Black Hole an object so massive and dense that even light can't escape the gravity Galaxies Large Groups of Dust, Stars, Gas Types of Galaxies Spiral Galaxies Classified by Edwin Hubble Have Bulge in Center, Spiral Arms Spiral Arms have Dust, Gas, Stars Elliptical Galaxies
Bright Centers, Little Dust, Gas Contains Old Stars Irregular Galaxy Galaxy that Doesn't Fit With the Rest Contents of Galaxies Contains Billions of Stars, Some Planetary Systems Nebulas ("Gas Clouds") Little Nebulas Many Nebulas Globular Cluster Many Old Stars Located in a Spherical Halo that Surrounds Spiral Galaxies such as the Milky Way (also common in Elliptical Galaxies)
Open Cluster closely packed group of stars located in spiral disk of galaxy Quasars: The Origin of Galaxies powerful energy sources thought to be caused by black holes Formation of the Universe (Cosmology) Cosmology: study of the origin, structure, and future of the universe the Big Bang Theory Galaxies Are Moving Away=At One Point, All Matter in the Same Place If Happened, Heat would be Left Over (Cosmic Background Radiation) Structure is Based On Cosmic Repetition
everything is part of a larger system every object in the universe is part of a larger system Age Can Be Determined in Proportion to How Fast Galaxies Are Moving Away Future of the Universe is Dependent on the Amount of Matter in the Universe
Forever-Expanding=not enough matter
Collapse of Universe=enough matter is present (gravity)
Scientists Predict Forever-Expanding (not much matter) Nebulas Nebulas? What are Nebulas? clouds with mixtures of gas/dust (H/He) gravity pulls toward, pressure pushes out disrupt in nebula set stage for solar systems to form How Did Our Solar System Form? Our Sun This is Our Sun This is the Structure of the Sun This is a short video showing the formation of the universe Energy Production Burning would last 10,000 years too short Shrinking pulled by Earth's Gravity would last 65 million years too short Nuclear Fusion E=mc2 showed that little matter=large amt. of energy developed by Albert Einstein Environment is Good for Fusion much pressure to overcome like bondsin hydrogen E=Energy, m=Matter, c=Speed of Light Energy Produced in Core Energy Produced in Core Solar Activity Solar Flares associated with sunspots created by the sun's magnetic field extremely hot may disrupt radio waves in earth electrically charge particles sent to space Let's Move on... to our Home Planet: The EARTH! The Formation of the Earth Gravity made the irregualar shape of earth more round Heat helped make volcanoes, the core, etc. The Layers of the Earth The Formation of the Atmosphere 1st Law: All Planets Move in an Ellipse 2nd Law: Planets Move Faster Toward the Sun 3rd Law: Outer Planets Take Longer to Orbit the Sun Ellipse: elongated circle Here is a Video Explaining All the Laws of Planetary Motion Very Simply If you didn't get it.... There's Always the History Part... It all happened when... Law of Universal Gravity: the force that depends on the product of the masses of the objects divided by the square of the disstance between the objects (explained orbits of planets, etc.) Inertia: an object's resistance in speed or direction until an outside force acts on the object Did you know that the Hubble Space Telescope was named after him? Then Let's Learn About Telescopes! The Most Reasonable Theory is Any evidence? Here is a video to summarize these points more clearly. Here is a diagram of the timeline from the Big Bang. Some Basic Facts About the Universe Ok, Let's Move On. M87 Milky Way Magellanic Cloud M50 M22 The Eagle Nebula Nebulas Make Stars? What types of stars are there? Some Star-Like Stuff Now let's talk about our Sun. Here is a video explaining nuclear fusion. Sunspots cool, dark spots may affect climate The Earth, infinitely smaller than the universe, ends the tour! If your still not interested in science... WATCH THIS! Let's Start the Tour! This will interest all bored students into the world of Astronomy! http://docs.google.com/Doc?docid=0Af2b-cAtdD1lZDRiOGZ3cF8zOGM1eHM4cmZx&hl=en "Hubble's Law" 2.725 degree Kelvin (-454.765 degree Fahrenheit, -270.425 degree Celsius) found by Radioastronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson stated that all galaxies were moving away all galaxies were moving away with proportionately similar speeds Hubble studied the Redshift when light seen coming from an object is proportionally shifted to appear more red Doppler Effect named after Austrian physicist Christian Doppler who proposed it in 1842, is the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave