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Transcript of Egyptian Mummification
Mummification Cheyenne Lipski & Monica Hurst AGENDA Define: Mummification
Why did Ancient Egyptians mummify their dead?
God of Mummification
The Making of the Mummy
Tombs Throughout the Years
Death and Afterlife
Mummification of Animals
Mummification Museum in Luxor What is
Mummification? Preservation of a body, either human or animal. Mummies can be preserved wet, some are frozen, and some are dried. Mummification can be a natural process or may be deliberately achieved. Egyptian mummies were deliberately mummified by drying. Why did ancient Egyptians
mummify their dead? The Egyptians believed that there were 6 important aspects that made up a human being:
The physical body
The Akh (immortality). With the exception of the akh, all these elements join a person at birth. A person's shadow was always present. A person could not exist with out a shadow, nor the shadow without the person. The shadow was represented as a small human figure painted completely black. A person's name was given to them at birth and would live for as long as that name was spoken. This is why efforts were made to protect the name. A cartouche (magical rope) was used to surround the name and protect it for eternity. The Ka The ka was a person's double. (Spirit or Soul) The ka was created at the same time as the physical body. The doubles were made on a potters wheel by the ram-headed god, Khnum, The ka existed in the physical world and resided in the tomb. It had the same needs that the person had in life, which was to eat, drink, etc. The Egyptians left offerings of food, drink, and worldly possessions in tombs for the ka to use. The Ba The ba can best be described as someone's personality. Like a person's body, each ba was an individual. It entered a person's body with the breath of life and it left at the time of death. It moved freely between the underworld and the physical world. The ba had the ability to take on different forms. The Akh The akh was the aspect of a person that would join the gods in the underworld being immortal and unchangeable. It was created after death by the use of funerary text and spells, designed to bring forth an akh. Once this was achieved that individual was assured of not "dying a second time" a death that would mean the end of one's existence. An intact body was an integral part of a person's afterlife. Without a physical body there was no shadow, no name, no ka, ba, or akh. By mummification, the Egyptians believed they were assuring themselves a successful rebirth into the afterlife. The God of Mummification: Anubis Had a human body
Head of a jackal
Son of Nephthys
Job was to prepare bodies of the dead that were to be received by Osiris The Making of a Mummy 1. Announcement of Death
2. Embalming the Body
3. Removal of Brain
4.Removal of Internal Organs
5. Drying Out Process
6. Wrapping of the Body
7. Final Procession 1. Announcement of Death 2. Embalming the Body 3. Removal of Brain 4. Removal of Internal Organs 5. Drying out Process 6. Wrapping of the Body This first step was to let the people know that someone had died. A messenger was sent out to the streets to announce the death. This allowed people to get themselves ready for mourning period and ceremony. The second step was taking the body to be embalmed. The embalmers were located in special tents or buildings. These buildings were called embalming workshops, and were maintained by teams of priests. Oftentimes during the embalming, the priests would have to step outside to get away from the horrible smell. The first part of the body to be removed was the brain. Egyptians did not know the purpose of the brain, so they thought it was a waste of space. To extract the brain, a hook was inserted through the nose. The embalmers pulled out as much as they could, then put it in water to dissolve. Some people think the water was then thrown out, but others think it was taken with the mummy to the burial chamber. Next to be removed were the internal organs: the liver, the lungs, the stomach, and the intestines. A small slit was made on the left side of the abdomen, then the embalmers reached in and pulled out the organs. Each of the organs was individually mummified, then stored in little coffins called canopic jars. There were four canopic jars, one for each of the organs. These jars were protected by the four sons of Horus. Once the internal organs were removed, the inside of the body was washed out with palm oil, lotions, and preserving fluids. Next the body was stuffed with linen, straw, or other packing material to keep the general shape of the person. Sometimes the embalmers were careless and either stuffed too much or too little. This caused the mummy to look puffy or disfigured. The body was placed on a slab and covered with either nacron or natron salt. The slab was tilted so that the water would run off into a basin. This removed moisture and prevented rotting. The body was taken outside and let dry for about forty days. After the body was completely dried out, the wrapping of the body began. The body was anointed with oils, and a gold peice with the Eye of Horus was placed over the slit in the abdomen. Hundreds of yards of linen were used to wrap the body, and each toe and finger was wrapped separately. Charms, amulets, and inscribed pieces of papyrus were placed between each layer of bandage. Egyptians believed that these charms had magical properties that would protect and bring luck to the body. The Eye of Horus, the symbol of protection, was used often. The wrapping process would be stopped every once in a while so that the priests could say certain prayers and write on the linen. A final shroud was placed on the mummy to keep all the wrappings together. Mummia was added to the shroud to "glue" it all together. (That's where the word "mummy" comes from.) Sometimes false eyes were inserted and make-up applied. Then a painted portrait mask was placed over the mummy's head so that dead person's soul (Ka) could recognize its owner. The mummy was then placed into a painted, decorated coffin The last step of mummification was the final procession. The final procession was where the family and friends of the deceased walked through the town on their way to the burial place. Mourners were paid to cry so that the gods of the other world would see that the person was well loved. The more people who cried, the more he was loved, and the better chance he had of going to the after world. Before the mummy was taken inside the tomb, a ceremony called the "Opening of the Mouth" took place. 7. Final Procession Opening of the Mouth was performed by priests outside the burial chamber. This was one of the most important preparations. The family of the mummy recited spells while the priests used special instruments to touch different parts of the mummy's face. The Egyptians believed that the mummy would not be able to eat, see, hear, or move in the afterlife if this ceremony did not take place. The mummy was then laid in the burial chamber along with all of his belongings, the canopic jars, and the Book of the Dead. The Book of the Dead was not actually a book, but a collection of over 200 magic spells written on papyrus. This book contained instructions on how to achieve eternal life. Then the tomb was sealed. Opening of the Mouth The most important task to achieve immortality was not actually seen by anyone. This task was called "The Weighing of the Heart." Egyptians believed that the most powerful part of a person was his heart. The heart was never removed from the body, because it was considered to be the center of a person's being. In this ceremony, the gods of the underworld judged the mummy's heart, or how well he behaved during his natural life. Maat, the goddess of truth, brought out her scale; on one side was the mummy's heart, and on the other was the Feather of Truth. Anubis, the god of the underworld, made the final judgement, and Thoth, the scribe god, recorded it all. If the heart balanced the feather, the soul of the mummy was granted immortality. If the heart was heavier than the feather (if the sins outweighed the virtues), the soul was doomed to a horrible fate. The heart was thrown to a monster called Ammit, or Devourer of the Dead. Weighing of the Heart Tombs Throughout the Years As time went on tombs became more and more intricate, involving simple-pit graves, mastaba-tombs, Rock-cut Chapels, and pyramid tombs. Simple-Pit Graves A pit in the ground only big enough to fit a body and very few important items buried with them. Was used in the predynastic period (before 3000 BC) but was still used afterwards by the poor. When a body was buried in a simple-pit grave, the sand covering them would dry the body and produce mummies. Towards the end of the predynastic period the simple-pit graves tended to be lined with wood or stone Mastaba-Tombs Flat-roofed rectangular tombs that were generally made out of mud bricks. Inside the Mastaba-tomb there was a deep chamber in the ground and this is where the actual body rest. Also used in the predynastic period for people of importance. Mastaba-tombs often had a ‘false door’ with inscriptions and pictures relating to the persons life Rock-cut Tombs Made by carving deep into the naturally hilly landscape resulting in something that would resemble a man-made cave. Rock-cut tombs were usually very elaborate and had fake entrances and hallways to misdirect tomb thieves. These tombs could vary in size from very small areas to large rooms Pyramid-Tombs Were made for Egyptian Pharaohs during the Old and Middle kingdoms. Made out of stone blocks with burial chambers inside. Pyramid-tombs were built on sacred pointed stones called benben, which symbolized the rays of then sun. Egyptians believed that Pharaohs reached the heavens through sun rays. For the ancient Egyptians, there were two paths to take after death. Either their soul was allowed into the kingdom of Osiris (Egyptian god of the Afterlife), or it was destroyed right away A priest would perform the Opening of the Mouth. Ceremony who would recite a spell and then touch the mummy with an adze, which was intended to convey power to the mummy.This ensured that the mummy had the ability to breathe and speak in the afterlife. Priests could also recite other spells for legs and arms
Mummies were usually provided with ‘funerary texts’which included for navigating the afterlife Death and Afterlife Mummification in Other Ancient Societies Although other societies had different beliefs, mummification was practiced all over the world. Asia
The Burmese rulers and priest
The Buddhist monks of Vietnam
The Japanese Buddhist priests
Guanches of the Canary Islands
The Monks of Palermo
The Scythian Kings of Russia South America
The Yupka of Venezuela
The Chinchorro of Chile
The Chavin of Peru
Aleuts of the Aleutian Islands
Ancient Pueblo People of Western U.S.A Mummification Museum in Luxor The Mummification Museum is relatively new. The museum's features displays of both human and animal mummies. However, there are also displays of tools used in the mummification process, as well as artefacts of items buried along with the mummies for use in the afterlife. Almost anything one ever wanted to know about mummification can be learned here, including the mummification process itself. Mummification of Animals Egyptians believed you could take nearly everything to the afterlife with you including animals. Pets were important to their owners and in order for them to successfully enter the afterlife they had to be mummified. Cats, dogs, monkeys and even small insects were mummified. Animals were mummified as pets and offerings to the gods. Some were only for the purpose of food for the afterlife. That concludes