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introduction

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yasmin 7sn

on 2 July 2014

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Transcript of introduction

is a set of antibiotics derived from
Penicillium fungi. it was discovered by fleming in 1928, and in 1940 Howard Florey and Ernst Chain performed first clinical trials of penicillin.

3. Monobactams
β-lactam ring is not fused to
another ring
• the only available monobactams antibiotics is Aztreonam
• No activity against gram positive as well as anaerobic organisms.
2. Cephalosporins
* Derived from Cephalosporium sp.

* Classified into generations: 1-4 .

* Increasing activity against gram-negative bacterial and anaerobes.

* Increasing resistance to destruction by beta-lactamases .


1. Penicillins
1- Penicillins
there are different type of penicillins can be used in medical treatment but they have different properties.

for example benzathine penicillin have the same antibacterial activity as benzylpenicillin but act for a longer period of time.

Phenoxymethylpenicillin is less active against gram-negative bacteria than benzylpenicillin.
* Pnuemonia
* meningitis
* sepsis.
1- CEPHALOSPORINS:
*Painful after IM injection
* Allergy to the antibiotics like the allergy of penicilline because they are smiler in their structure
* Diarrhea
* Hypersensitivity reaction
* The most important side effect is
allergic reactions, especially to penicillin.
* Fever
* Vomiting
* Rash
Beta-Lactam antibiotics classes
Medical use
Side effects and Allergy to Beta-lactam
Beta-lactam Antibiotics
Introduction
Name: Yasmin Al Safadi
Index
* Introduction

* Beta-Lactam antibiotics classes

* Medical use

* Side effects and Allergy to Beta-lactam

* Conclusion

what are the beta-lactam antibiotics:

are a wide group of antibiotics, consisting of all antibiotic factors that include a β-lactam ring in their molecular body.

Most β-lactam antibiotics work by blocking cell wall biosynthesis in the bacterial organism, and Act by inhibiting the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls.
These antibiotics contain beta-lactam ring
4. Carbapenems
* These are synthetic antibiotics & are structurally related to beta lactam antibiotics.

* Active against gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.anaerobes , Not active against Enterococcus .

2- CARBAPENEMS
.
• Skin rashes
• Reaction at the site of infusion
• Imipenem in renal failure causes seizures
• 5. Serious skin and soft tissue infections.
2- Monobactams


1. Anaerobic infections like peritonitis

2. Hospital acquired infections

3. Enterobacter infections

3
-
Carbapenems
4- USES ( CEPHALOSPORINS )
penicillin

1. Mixed aerobic as well as anaerobic
infections
2. Enterobacterial infections –( resistant to beta lactamase produced by it)
3. Infections due to all gram –ve
organisms.
conclusion
all of these antibiotics work by blocking bacterial cell wall biosynthesis. This has a deadly effect on bacteria.
so each bacteria have a different kind of antibiotics.
monobactames

* Chest discomfort
* vomiting and fever
* Pain at injection site and
rash
http://reference.medscape.com/drug/azactam-aztreonam-342553#4

http://www.emedexpert.com/compare/cephalosporins.shtml

http://pharmacology.xjtu.edu.cn/ppt/b-lactamAntibiotics.pdf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penicillin

http://www.uic.edu/pharmacy/courses/pmpr342/itokazu/carbapenems.html
References
Full transcript