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Transcript of Transgenic Animals
DNA is taken from one organism, and through recombinant DNA technology, it is transmitted to the germ line and makes every cell in another organism contain the new genetic material.
There are 3 main ways this is done... Potential uses and benefits of transgenic engineering Disease resistant animal.
Xeno transplantation- process of giving a human an animal organ. Research is still being done.
Transgenic cows may be able to treat human diseases with a protein produced in their milk.
High qualities of growth hormone to increase meat production or milk production in cows.
Production of milk low in cholesterol.
potential for correction of genetic disorders in humans.
Improving medicine production. I. Agricultural Benefits:
Breeding: Allows farmers to select certain traits in their livestock that would produce beneficial results, (Desired traits) which helps them increase yields.
Quality: Cows that produce more milk/milk with less lactose, pigs and cattle with more meat on them, sheep that produce more wool. Disadvantages of Transgenic Animals Current Uses of Transgenic Animals II. Medical Applications:
Human Gene Therapy: Adding a normal copy of a gene (transgene from an animal) to genome of person carrying defective copies of the gene.
Examples of Nutritional Supplements/Pharmaceuticals: Milk from transgenic cows/sheep/goats can provide insulin, growth hormones, and blood anti-clotting factors. Sources Current Uses of Transgenic Animals Even though humans may benefit from transgenic animals, the animals itself may not. (Ear on mouse)
Scientists often don't always know the side effects that can result from modifying genes of animals.
Animals with genes removed have shown unexpected adverse effects or behaviors identical to the animals with the gene. Xenotransplantation: Transgenic animals can provide organs to patients who would otherwise die waiting for one. (Pigs) (Future) Current Uses of Transgenic Animals III. Industrial Applications:
Animals can be used to produce more than one product that they wouldn't normally make.
Example: Fabrics from goats (splice spider genes into goats ---> goats begin to produce silk in their milk.) 3 Methods of Transgenic Animals 1. DNA Microinjection - DNA taken from one organism is placed in a micropipette and injected into the nucleus of a cell with the help of a microscope. Benefits: can be used for a wide array of animals, Disadvantages: Random process; won't necessarily work
2. Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer - Using a retrovirus as a vector, you can increase the probability of success because of the ability of the virus to infect the host cell and reproduce.
3. Embryonic stem cell-mediated gene transfer - A DNA sequence is inserted into embryonic stem cells through homologous recombination (similar to crossing-over in meiosis), and then put into an embryo at a specific stage of development. This is used primarily to target mutations in a gene with mice. Buy, Marie. "Transgenic Animals." . University of Calgary, n.d. Web. 29 Jan 2013. <http://people.ucalgary.ca/~browder/transgenic.html>.
"Future uses of transgenic cows | Biotech Learning Hub." Home | Biotech Learning Hub. The University of Waikato, 24 Feb. 2010. Web. 28 Jan. 2013.
Komarova, Yulia, John Peloquin, and Gary Borisy. "Microinjection of Protein Samples." . Cold Spring Harbor Protocols, n.d. Web. 29 Jan 2013.
Margawati, Endang T. "Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits To Human Welfare." (ActionBioscience). ActionBioscience.org, 2003. Web. 29 Jan. 2013.
Raykova, Doroteya, Grzegorz Dziurawiec, Michaël Veiga Mendes, Silwya Misiaszek, and Vasil Savov. Why transgenic animals do not raise the same reactions of people as transgenic plants?. Lublin: EU SOCRATES ERASMUS European Community , 2009. 3-10. Web. 28 Jan. 2013. <http://bioethics.agrocampus-ouest.eu/pdf2009/Transgenic_animals.pdf>.
"Transgenic Animals." BioTopics. N.p.. Web. 29 Jan 2013. <http://www.biotopics.co.uk/edexcel/biotechnol/transa.html>. Disadvantages of Transgenic Animals Continued... Some cases that have shown harmful effects include:
Cows have been GM to have larger udders to produce more milk, but are burdened to carry more weight causing more limb injuries.
Some salmon have been GM to be larger. Unfortunately, this has a high potential to disrupt natural selection. As female salmon are attracted to larger males. Native salmon infiltrated by just a few GM salmon are expected to wipe out entire populations.
Genetically altering the cells of animal is often seen as unethical and not natural. Dennis, David. TISSUE CULTURE, MICRO-PIPETTE & WELL PLATE . N.d. Art.comWeb. 29 Jan 2013. Gobonobo, . Vacanti mouse. 2012. WikipediaWeb. 29 Jan 2013. "Woolly Mammoth Woolens." : Shrek the Sheep. Woolly Mammoth Woolens, 27 July 2012. Web. 30 Jan. 2013. <http://woollymammothwoolensdyedays.blogspot.com/2012/07/shrek-sheep.html>. Zyga, Lisa. "Scientists Breed Goats That Produce Spider Silk." Scientists Breed Goats That Produce Spider Silk. Phys.org, 31 May 2010. Web. 30 Jan. 2013.