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Sasha-Kay Wallace

on 21 November 2012

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Template by Missing Link
Images from Shutterstock.com TELECOMMUNICATION Sasha-Kay Wallace
Mishka Bell
Zhane' Peterkin-Robinson
Zoya Nash COMPUTER HARDWARE- THEN AND NOW THEN..... History of Computer Software Software is defined as a series of instructions that tells a programmable device its operations History of Computer Hardware Computer Software Computer Hardware is defined as the physical components of the computer system as well as their related devices e.g. the Mother Board, Scanners etc. In the late 16th to the early 17th Centuries Wilhelm Schickard designed the first mechanical calculator in 1623. This machine could add and subtract, and partially multiply and divide. Between 1965 and 1970, integrated circuits were introduced. Multiple transistors were combined to make these circuits. 1970 to 1980 computers were becoming smaller and more powerful causing personal computers to develop, so that average persons could afford to use them. NOW... The first generation of codes used to program the functions of a computer was called machine language or machine code e.g. Binary. The second generation of code was called assembly language. Assembly language turns the sequences of 0s and 1s into human words and back into machine language FORTRAN or formula translation was the first high level software invented by John Backus for IBM in 1954, and released commercially in 1957. Fortran is still used today for programming scientific and mathematical applications. Examples of high level programming language COBOL, C, C++, LISP, Pascal, and Prolog. Categories Desktop(PC)- a computer that can perform all of its programmed functions by itself. Laptop/Tablet- A type of PC that is portable. Mobile Device e.g. Siri iPhone- a computing device that is hand held. Game Console e.g. xbox 360- mobile computing device designed for one or multiplayer video games Server- controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a network.

Mainframe- a large, expensive, powerful, computer that can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users at a time.

Supercomputer- the fastest, most expensive, and most powerful computer used for complex, sophisticated mathematical operations.

Embedded Computer- a special purpose computer that functions as a component in a large product. History of Telecommunication Telecommunication is defined as the transmission of information using electromagnetic means over long distances. During the 1800s Smoke Signals, Flag Signals (usually among sailors), Telegraphs or Morse Coded messages were some of the instruments used to convey information over long distances. Years later people started using Fibre Optics, Telephones, Microwave Communication, Satellites etc. as well as their respective technology t transmit information. In the 1900s wireless telecommunication came into play. History of the Internet The Internet is defined as a network of networks that connects millions of individuals an organizations worldwide. This network was developed from the invention of the ARPANET headed by the U.S.A’s Pentagon Advanced Research Projects Agency and became official and functional on September 1969. This network was mainly used to monitor the activities of the U.S militia. Transmission Media Describes the type of physical system used to carry a communication signal from one system to another. Examples of transmission media include twisted, coaxial cable, and Satellite transmission. Advantages Disadvantages The coaxial cable is:
-Easy to wire-Easy to expand

The twisted pair cable is:
-Easy to install
The fibre optic cable is fast. -When using the coaxial cable a single cable failure can take down an entire network.

-The fibre optic cable is very costly.

-The fibre optic cable is hard to install. Channels These are the routes through which information travels from the sender to the receiver.
This route is carefully selected to adequately transmit the information to the intended audience. Receivers These are the intended areas where the transmission of the information was performed.
For example, using a remote to control the actions of a humanoid robot. This is the source of the information or instructions that will be transmitted.
For example, Dish cable network uses satellite feeds to send images to their customer’s TV. Sender Modulation This is the process of varying one or more properties of a high-frequency periodic waveform, called the carrier signal which contains information is transmitted or received. this occurs during the transmission and reception of radio signals. Bandwidth This is defined as the amount of data that can be conveyed from one point to another within a specified time (normally in one second), also known as the “data transfer rate”.

For example: The bandwidth across a modem is 57,600bps (bits per second)/ hertz. That is, it takes approximately 58 bits per second to transfer an instruction or request. Telecommuting This is defined as a work arrangement in which employees do not commute to a central place of work. Advantages -These workers save time and money as they don’t commute to their workplaces.
-Schedule Flexibility.
-Pay is made based on performance instead of the traditional hours.-Tax Advantages Disadvantages -Time management issues.-Perception of Friends and Family
-There is a lack of social interactions. The coaxial cable is:
-Easy to wire-Easy to expand

The twisted pair cable is:
-Easy to install
The fibre optic cable is fast.
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