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l & H o r i z o n t a l integration Both vertical and horizontal integration are ways of extending a business but are different in the approach. Vertical integration is the process where a company control and own several parts of the media like the distribution, An example of vertical integration is a film company that only concentrates in the funding for a film who then decide to also make merchandise for the films they are funding for in order for the company to try to control more parts of the media sector, which will enlarge there company and therefore gain more money. Horizontal integration is more common and simpler than vertical integration; Horizontal integration is where a company increases its market share by taking over another similar company. This often happens in the music industry where major record labels buy out independent companies. Another example of horizontal integration is You Tube which was taken over my Google to increase the viewers. The UK music business consists of different organisations and record companies are a huge part of the business that includes self employed individuals, small businesses and other large national companies. INDEPENDENT Labels MAJOR Labels Self funded (without funds from outside organizations).
Many artists start their career contracted to an independent label.
Known for their flexible and fair ways as they let the artist produce their own music.
The artist also has the majority of the royalties.
Major labels are criticized for destroying independent companies as they are buying them out, or signing there artists so the companies go bankrupt and have no choice but to sell their company. Major companies like defjam or syco are huge international record companies who have some of the biggest artists in thw world signed to them.
Artists signed to these companies don’t tend to have much say in their material being released.
In the past alot of artists from major companies are dropped if they do not make as much as hoped. (eg. Shane Ward being dropped from Syco).
Well known artists have left their record labels because they weren’t happy with their music being produced and the way they were treated so they sign to an independent label, or started their own label so they have more freedom with their music. For example Prince left his label Warner bros and created his own label called NPG records. Both are made up of the same structure as they both have managers, artists, composers, publishers, distributors etc. and they both assist in helping the artist to record material, develop an artists career and provide financial and organistaional skills to support the recording, manufacture, distribution and promotion of an artist music. Copyright Copyright means that you give the founder and creator of the work the rights over how it is published, distributed and changed. Artists will license their copyright in a song to a publishing company who are more able to manage and control their rights. In the UK the copyright for a sound recording is over 50 or 70 years then it may be used. Copyright is important in the music business as it makes sure that the creators and owners are protected and rewarded for people using their work. The law states that the person or people who originally made the material, whether that being a song, script, book have ownership of that piece of work and can gain legal protection. Work cannot be copied without the permission of the creator and they usually want royalties for using their work. An example of copyright in the music industry is Vanilla Ice who become known but because of the copyright infringement that occurred in 1990 when he had used Queen and David Bowie’s song under pressure without permission or license. He transformed the song into a rap tune and changed the name to Ice Ice Baby but kept the rhythm of the track. The song became a number one on the charts in the United States and Vanilla Ice thought he would get away of credit, royalties, license or even permission. He settled out of court with Queen and David Bowie for a secret possibly very high amount of money. Discrimination
Representaion It is illegal to discriminate against anyone on grounds of sex, age, disability or ethnic origin when recruiting or in the workplace. Record companies have been accused as they predominantly employ males and there are only around only 15% females working behind the music scene. Age is also a issue in music, artists find it difficult to get a record deal after the age 25, and find it even more difficult t to establish and maintain a career. The likes of Rihanna, Katy Perry and Lady Gaga have been effected by representation issues and recognized as sex symbols for producing the same sound songs and have only been employed because of there looks, not for their talent and music desire. Discrimination Representation Compared to the likes of Adele who is a worldwide success and people concentrate on her voice and music rather than her looks and outfits. These are two different artists, and this just shows that you dont have to be pressured into a certain body type or over-sexualised to gain respect and make a name for yourself. Issues of morality - The watershed for swearing and offensive words set by Ofcom is 9pm. MTV has been fined £225,000 by media regulator Ofcom for airing music videos containing offensive language before the 9pm watershed and other breaches of the broadcasting code, and they have been warned numerous times in the past. these videos have contained swearing, racism and homophobic language. Rihanna has been criticized in for her S&M video which has apparently been banned in 11 countries according to a report in the UK's Daily Mirror. The video is said to be too sexy to be shown on TV as it includes Rihanna dressed up in latex, tying up and whipping men, simulated sex with blow-up dolls and the singer sucking a banana. The songs lyrics also contain strong sex related sentences such as ‘sex in the air, I don't care, I love the smell of it.' This has resulted in some radio stations taking it off their playlists including BBC's Radio 1. MTV has made a re-edited version for the video and cut out most of the exploitation scenes. Media regulation It is essential that the music sector has regulations and laws to ensure safety over such things as racism, swearing, indecent conduct etc so that the audience won’t be offended by what they are seeing and listening. Copyright exists in original music work so that the person who created the music are entitled to collect royalty payments on behalf of composers, songwriters, authors, publishers or whoever using the music for copyrighting. PRS is an organisation which collects and pays royalties to the people behind the music when their music is played/broadcasted/performed. www.prsformusic.com However, my opinion is that the re-edited version should still not be shown in the daytime as it's too sex related for young children to see. Also YouTube has recently intorduced an age policy where they ask the user whether they are 18 years old before watching the video. Regulatory bodies. BPI Ofcom Issues of censorship BPI is a voluntary Parental Advisory Scheme.
They warn viewers of explicit content which is shown on online sites like iTunes.
BPI is trying to make age restrictions on music videos to stop children buying or watching offensive material.
They cover topics like drugs, violence, offensive language, discrimination and sexual scenes and keeping them to the 9p.m. watershed.
Ofcom don’t have specific rules for music videos however they go through and check all the videos shown on TV before showing them making sure they aren’t breaching any indecent footage or language before the watershed.
If not suitable before the watershed it is edited and the bits are taken out so it may be shown in the day.
Ofcom have compliance teams that observe every complained about video to see what is breaching the watershed. They regulate all of the music channels to ensure the protcection and safety of under 18's. An example of a recent breach is 4Music who went against Ofcom by showing the video for Flo-Rida’s song Turn Around as it included dancers wearing thongs; this material was seen unsuitable for children. The record label that they are signed to should decide whether the content of the music is appropriate to be released a otherwise they shouldn’t release the music or alter it. Bodies like Walmart and organizations like Parents’ Music Resource Centre (PMRC) are responsible for censoring albums and songs as there are no current laws in censoring music. Organizations like PMRC can produce parental advisory labels and they decide whether the song should be censored.
If so, the album are made to have a parental advisory explicit lyrics label on it to make anyone buying the album/song aware of what it contains. Censorship in the music indusrty can affect an artists career and sales. (cc) image by jantik on Flickr This is what the label looks like that will be on the front cover of an album. The different job roles.. Music Editors help Directors and control the structure on a soundtrack, they are usually responsible for all the music featured on film soundtracks, including performed music, this is one of the most competitive areas in the film music industry. Radio Producers do a lot of speech-based and music radio and they are responsible for making and co-ordinating the musical content of Radio programmes, Essential knowledge and skills
expert knowledge of how music is constructed and recorded.
Knows their history on music genres e.g. pop, classical.
Expert in editing. Music Editor
Excellent hearing Communication skills
Sense of timing
Work under pressure
How instruments work Music Editors have usually studied a Sound or Music Technology course at university at a post-graduate level. Radio Producers -Producers in speech Radio work in all genres from topical talk shows to documentaries, from drama to comedy. Radio Producers must make the content for the programme and manage their team through the whole production whether that is live or recorded. -Producers are expected to understand the purpose target audience for the programme and to be knowledgeable about the subject matter so researching the topic is essential. They should also be able to operate radio studios, and to correctly record audio both in studios and on location. They may be required to professionally record interviews and edit using music software’s.
The radio academy offer programmes, jobs, opportunities, training and host events throughout the country. Job oppertunities In Staffordshire, Leek there is a oppertunity looking for a presenter at Moorlands Radio station 103.7FM, this is a community radio station and they are looking for presenters to work on weekends including their popular breakfast shows, this is not a paid job and they are looking for experience. To apply you must send a covering letter and a mp3 demo showing your skills as a presenter. A problem with this role is that you need experience for them to consider employing you however they employ people who have had experience volunteering on local hospital and travel radio stations so that is a great place to start as a radio presenter.
-www.mediauk.com/radio How to write a good CV: Having a good curriculam vitae is essential when looking for work and itshould contain the following-
- career and employment history,
- training & qualifications you have gained throughout school and othercourses or studies,
- personnel details, e.g name, address, numbers, email, age,
- profile of yourself including your qualities tailored towards the job your applying for,
- interests and a reference of a recent employer or teacher.
A CV should also be short, preferablly one side of A4. It should be positive, stating your achievements and strengths, and make a good impression in a clear and positive way. here is an example of a CV...
How to write a successful cover letter.
Clear writing and easy to understand
Good grammer and not too long, one or two paragraphs
Make it personnel to the person who will read it and address them formally
May include your understanding of the work of the company and how you fit this role
Relate your skills to the specific job
State when your available to start work, here is an example of a cover letter- What is a showreel?
A showreel is a portfolio of your work, usually presented as a montage of your best work to present to an employer in a form of a video showing off your favourite and most suitable work that someone employing you may interest them.