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The Goals of First Aid

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by

Elissa Wartoukian

on 9 January 2016

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Transcript of The Goals of First Aid

The Goals of First Aid
1. Protect a person who is injured or ill from further harm.
2. Stop life-threatening medical emergencies (Keep the airway open. Maintain breathing and circulation. Stop serious bleeding. Treat for shock.)
3. Get the person under professional medical care.
3 Local Poisonous Plants
Immediately stop to wash the exposed area well with soap and water. Wipe with rubbing alcohol and apply calamine or other soothing skin treatments.
How to treat for exposure to poisonous plants
It causes a rash with redness, blisters, swelling, itching, burning, fever, and headache. The rash can spread to other parts of the body.
Heart Attack
Heart attack is a damage to the heart muscle.
Common signals of a heart attack;
uncomfortable pressure, squeezing fullness or pain in the center of the chest behind the breast bone.
unusual sweating
nausea
a feeling of weakness
shortness of breath
If anyone complains of these symptoms get medical attention right away
CPR Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Place CPR breathing barrier over victim's mouth. Give 2 rescue breaths maintain the head tilt. Pinch the nostril seal your mouth over the victim's and blow air into their lungs. After 2 rescue breath check pulse for 10 seconds. if there is no breathing continue rescue breaths 3 chest compressions followed by 2 rescue breath.
How to Obtain Emergency Medical Assistance
Home:
act quickly call 911. Include location of victim,
description of injuries, time of occurrance, number of people with victim and skill level for first aid, request special assistance or equipment.
Wilderness camping trip:
an injured scout who can walk on their own or with someone may be able to hike up a road. A group of scouts may be able to build a shelter. For serious injuries its usually best to treat victim at the accident site. send 2 or more people for help the rest stay with injured victim.
Open water:
larger boats may have radios. when cellphones aren't available send 2 or more scouts to the closest telephone.
Triage
A quick check of each victim's injuries and then determining how best to use available first-aid resources.
Bloodborne Pathogens
Are viruses, or bacteria carried in the blood. It can be passed by touch and be harmful.
1. treat all blood as if it were contaminated
2.thoroughly wash your hands with soap and warm water after treating a victim
3. never use your bare hands (gloves)
4. safely discard soiled gloves
5. always wash your hands and any other exposed skin.
Shock
Circulatory system of a person who is injured or under great stress might not provide enough blood and oxygen to the tissues of the body can have; restlessness, irritability, feeling weak, confusion, fear, pale skin, weak pulse, irregular breathing, nausea, vomiting, extreme thirst.
if someone is in shock speak in a calm voice
Heart Attack
A life threatening condition that causes death or damage to heart muscle. If victim is feeling uncomfortable pressure, unusual sweating, nausea, shortness of breath, or feeling weak, get medical attention. Be ready for CPR if victim stops breathing.
Stroke
When artery to the brain is either bursts or is blocked by a clot. when blood supply to the brain is interrupted brain cells begin to die. Sudden weakness, confusion, trouble seeing and speaking, dizziness, loss of balance, sever headache, call 911 immediately.
A-B-C-D
Before performing CPR check for airway, breathing, circulation, defibrillator. Tap the victim see if they are awake, ask questions to see if they are responsive. if they are unconscious call 911. tilt head back; look, listen, feel.
Defibrillator
Can send an electrical shock through the heart to momentarily stop an electrical activity this pause gives the heart enough time to go back to rhythm. An AED is computerized it can check a persons heat rhythm and recognize a rhythm that requires shock. It can also advise when another shock is need. The AED uses voice prompt, lights, and text message to tell the rescuer steps to take.
Severe Cut on Leg & Wrist
put on non-latex disposable gloves & protective goggles. Can cloth/ sterile dressing as a pad, use palm of your hand and apply pressure directly over wound, wrap with elastic bandage, strip clean cloth or use similar bandage and bind firmly
(not to tight to cut off circulation) if feeling warm or change of color loosen grip, if pad gets soaked threw with blood add fresh pad (but do not remove previous bandage) apply pressure.
Tourniquet
For extreme case of sever bleeding. A devise specifically to be tightened above a limb that has been partially/ completely severed. Care is delayed by 30 minutes or not available. Tourniquets stop blood flow to limb, can cause tissue death, and many result in surgical amputation.
Bee Sting
Bee sting can be life threatening if someones allergic. If you get stung by a bee simply remove the stinger by scraping it out with a card or knife. Don't try to pull the stinger out it will force more venom into the skin, use an ice pack to reduce swelling and pain.
Heat Stroke
Symptoms:
exhaustion, hot, sweaty, red skin, confusion, disorientation and rapid pulse.

First Aid:
call medical assistance while waiting work on lowering victims temperature; move to shade, air conditioned area, loosen tight cloth, apply wet cloth, and give plenty of water.
Broken Bone
A fall or collision may cause a fracture when you suspect a fracture do not move the person. Look for abnormal shape or positioning of a bone or joint and swelling or a bluish color at injured site.
Ask victim these questions
1. Did you hear or feel a bone snap?
2. Do you feel pain when you press on the skin over the suspected fracture?
3. Are you unable to move the injured limb?
If the victim has answered yes to these questions the person likely has a fracture.
Injuries to Head, Neck, Back
If victim complains of head neck or back pain, feeling of tingling or weakness in toes and fingers, not fully alert and seems intoxicated, might have spinal column injuries.
1. stabilize the head and neck until it can be determined whether its a spinal injury
2. provide urgent treatment (if necessary)
3. do not move victim unless there is immediate danger
4. if victim has trouble breathing gently adjust head position (don't put pillow under head)
5. treat for shock but don't change victims position.
Hypothermia
when a persons body is loosing more heat then it can generate. Dress warmly and drink hot/warm fluids.
Seizures
A charge in awareness or behavior that is caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Its due to epilepsy can occur from head injury, brain tumor, stroke, posing, electrical shock, heat stroke , infection, a high fever, low blood sugar, low blood pressure.
Frostbite
condition that occures wjen skin is exposed to temperatures cold enough that ice crystals begin to form in the tissue. Drink hot fluids stay away from the cold. frost bits block blood flow and causes tissue to die.
Dehydration
Human body contain 70% water to viral organs like brain and kidneys. Will not function without water. dry lips, thirst, dark yellow urine, dizziness, weakness, confusion, loss of appetite, fainting, muscle cramps, and nausea. drink water
Strains & Sprains
Sprain occurs when an ankle wrist or other joint is bent far enough to over stretch the ligaments, strains occur when muscles are over stretched and its created a tear.
Burns
1. first-degree outer layer (epidermis) put under cold water
2. second-degree outer layer and skin below it (dermis) put under water until pain is relieved let burn dry and apply loose gauze pad
3. third-degree skin burned away (full-thickness) put under water, sterile dressing, treat for shock, seek immediate medical attention.
abdominal pain
upset stomach or dangerous as appendicitis; loss of appetite, then pain in the lower right quarter of the abdomen and gets worse, nausea, vomiting, don't let them eat or drink, call 911.
broken, chipped, or loosened tooth
gently rinse the mouth with warm water, place cold/wet cloth on injury to minimize swelling, remove broken, chipped tooth go to dentist
knocked out tooth
pick up tooth by crown, rinse gently cold water/ or milk, don't scrub or dry tooth, flush the wound with clean water, stop bleeding put gauze, take victim to dentist's office (30 mints)
muscle cramps
Occurs when a muscle contacts on its own and doesn't relax. It happens when you don't stretch well. Its a hard knot massage lightly, and rest.
bruises
black, blue makes a typical bruises caused by a blood leaking into tissue place ice 20 minutes
firefighter carry
back-strap carry
4 handed seat
2 handed seat
chair carry
hammock carry
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