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The Second World War

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Andrew Flynn

on 20 April 2016

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Transcript of The Second World War

In April 1940, there was a sudden end to this 'phoney war'.
For months after the declaration, nothing happened. This period of time was called the
"Phoney War"
. However, Britain used this time to mobilize many of it
British Expeditionary Force
to France, expecting a German invasion. British children were also sent from cities to the countryside.
Blitzkrieg
On September 1 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Hitler
unleashed a new type of warfare called
'Blitzkrieg' or
lightening war.
First bombs would be dropped from the air by Luftwaffe on enemy forces. Tanks (Panzers) and infantry would then sweep in to secure the area.
The Outbreak of War
Operation Barbarossa
The Fall of France
10 May 1940, the Germans by pass the
Maginot Line
and attacked France through the Ardennes region in Belgium.
The Battle of Britain
Following the fall of France, Britain stood alone in Europe against Nazi aggression. Hitler hoped that Britain would look for a peace deal. However, it was soon became clear that Churchill had no intention of giving in.
Life during the Blitz
1939-1945
The Second World War
This tactic of warfare was first seen in action when the Germans invaded Poland. It completely destroyed the Polish defenses. They conquered Poland in 2 weeks. Britain and France were too far away to prevent the invasion.
In
April 1940
Germany use blitzkrieg to take control of
Denmark and Norway
.
In May 1940,
Germany took control of
Luxembourg, Belgium and Holland
. In Britain, a new prime minister was elected,
Winston Churchill
.
This took the Allies (Britain and France) by surprise. The BEF were forced to retreat and were now trapped between the coast and the advancing Germans.
Churchill soon put
Operation Dynamo
in place to evacuate British soldiers from a French port called
Dunkirk
. A flotilla of boats rescued
380,000
soldiers from the beaches. This was a huge success as they lived to fight another day.
German troops entered Paris on 13 June 1940. 8 days later France surrendered. General Charles De Gaulle set up a French government in exile in London. Meanwhile, Mussolini was sure the war was as good as over so he declared war on Britain and France.
Use your book to find these key words:
-Vichy
-Allies
-Axis
-Resistance
-Sealion
-Spitfires
-Blitz
Once Germany controlled France they divided it
in two. The North-East was occupied by Germany.
The south of France became a pro-German puppet state called
Vichy France
under the leadership of
Marshall Petain
.
Not all French people accepted German rule. Some joined the resistance which set up hit-and-run attacks on the Germans
.
The Allies: The Axis Powers:
Soviet Union Germany
Britain Italy
France Japan
USA

Neutral: Ireland, Spain, Sweden & Switzerland
Hitler created
Operation Sealion
. This was the plan to invade Britain. The first part of this plan was to ensure the German
Luftwaffe
could take on and beat the
Spitfires of the R.A.F
.
In
August 1940
, the Battle of Britain began. This was battle for control of the air. Despite the fact the Germans had more planes the RAF had a huge advantage,
Radar
. Radar station around the cost of Britain meant that the British could track all German planes as they headed to attack.
Having failed to defeat the RAF, Hitler changed tactic and started to attack London and other British cities. This period of bombing was known as
the Blitz.
Life during the Blitz
Air-raid sirens warned people of an attack.

When the sirens went off people would run for cover.

Special air-raid wardens directed emergency services to badly bombed areas.

Demolition squads knocked down unsafe buildings after attacks.
Life during the Blitz
Everyone was given gas masks in case the Nazi’s dropped poison gas on British cities.

Children’s gas masks had Mickey Mouse faces on them so that children would not be afraid to war them.
Life during the Blitz
Other people spent nights sleeping in London’s underground tube stations.

Blackouts – People had to cover their windows of their houses at night.

Blackouts made it harder for Lufwaffe to find targets.
Life during the Blitz
The Blitz terrified people in British cities.

Many people spent nights in Anderson huts.

Anderson huts: air-raid shelters made from iron and buried in the ground at the bottom of peoples gardens.
The Blitz
May 1941 - Hitler eventually abandoned his invasion of Britain.
Life during the Blitz
More than 1 million city children were sent to live in the countryside for safety.

Families were given money from government to keep these children.
The Blitz
The Blitz - The night-time bombing of British cities during World War II.

Nazi’s dropped bombs and incendiaries (bombs designed to start fires) on British cities.

August 1940 - May 1941: 90% of buildings in Central London were destroyed and 60,000 people died.
On 22 June 1941, Hitler breaks the
terms of the Nazi-Soviet Pact by launching a 3 pronged attack on Kiev, Leningrad and Moscow of the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Barbarossa.
Hitler decided to attack the Soviet Union for a number of reasons:
-Germany needed oil supplies to keep their war efforts going.
-Hitler wanted to extend his lebensraum.
-He despised communism and wished to destroy the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union commanders used clever tactics.
Marshal Zhukov
ordered his forces to retreat in an orderly fashion. As they retreated they adopted a
scorched earth
policy. As winter crept in, Germany would struggle to supply their frontline troops.
The Battle of Stalingrad
When the winter came, the Red Army
launched a massive counter attack. Hitler concentrated on capturing Stalingrad. Beyond Stalingrad lay the vitally important oilfields of Caucasus.
Keywords:
Barbarossa
lebensraum
Scorched Earth
Stalingrad
Caucasus
During the winter of 1942, the Red Army surrounded Stalingrad and began to starve the German army. General Von Paulus surrendered in
February 1943
. This was a decisive battle in Europe.
America Enters the War
Throughout the 1930's, relations between America and Japan had disintegrated.
On the 7th December 1941, without warning, Japan attacked the American Naval base of Pearl Harbour in Hawaii. The war had now spread to the Pacific. President Franklin.D Roosevelt immediately declared war on Japan.
Lesson Objective:
-The turning point of the Second World War
Operation Overlord
After success in Stalingrad, the Soviet Union began to push the Germans from Eastern Europe. By 1944, German forces had been completely driven from the Soviet Union and advanced towards Warsaw. During this counter attack nearly 20 million citizens of Russia had been killed.
The British and the Americans now began to attack from the West. This was called
Operation Overlord
and would culminate in on
D-Day, 6 June 1944.
In
1943
, America launched a successful attack on Italy from North Africa called
Operation Torch
. They would sweep up from the south of Italy, leading them to overthrow Mussolini.
The Germans had built strong defenses from the North of Holland to the Spanish border. The Allies needed prepare for the invasion of France.
-Special Amphibious tanks called
'funnies'
were designed for landing on the beaches.
- A pipeline under the ocean was laid so oil could be pumped under the English channel for tanks, jeeps and lorries.
-Artificial Harbours called "
mulberry piers
" were towed across the channel so that tanks could be easily brought ashore.
At Dawn
6 June 1944
, under the command of General
Eishenhower
, American, Canadian and British forces landed 5 beaches code named
Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno and Sword
.
At Omaha beach nearly 5000 Americans were killed but German resistance could not hold back 155,000 Allied soldiers landing in France. The liberation of France had begun.
The end of the War
Gradually the Germans were pushed back by Eisenhower's and Montgomery's allied forces. By August 1944 , Paris was liberated. As the Germans were pushed back, they managed to break through the Allied lines before being forced back. This was called the
Battle of the Bulge
and would be the last major fighting in the west.
In
February 1945
, Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt met at Yalta. Here they agreed how to disarm the Germans after the war and upon the establishment of the United Nations.
The Fall of Berlin:
By the Spring of 1945, Germany was being squeezed from both the west and the east. Berlin was now protected by
45,000
troops made up of older reserve soldiers and members of the
Hitler Youth
.
Marshal Zhukov and his
1.5 million
soldiers closed in on the city and took control on the
30th April 1945.
As the Russians approach, Hitler resigns and marries
his lover
Eva Braun
. The day after,
29th April 1945
, they
both commit suicide. A week later the war in Europe is over.
The War in the East
As Europe celebrated the end of hostilities the war continued in the east against Japan.
In
April 1945
,
Harry S Truman
became the President of the USA following the death of Roosevelt. Truman feared at least a million Allied soldiers would die in an invasion of Japan. This was partly down to resistance like the
Kamikaze
.
On
6th August 1945,
Truman ordered the American plane the
Enola Gay
to drop an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of
Hiroshima
. Three days later, the Americans dropped another on
Nagasaki
.
The Aftermath of the War
World War II was the most destructive war in history. It had many long lasting effects........
1. Over 55 millions soldiers and civilians were killed in the conflict. Tens of millions were left homeless.
2.Germany was divided into two. East Germany would be controlled by the Soviet Union and West Germany would be controlled by America, Britain and France.
3. The United Nations was set up. It was determined to ensure that a war like this would never happen again. Nations from all over the world united to promote peace.
4. The world now had two new superpowers; The USA and the Soviet Union. The became rivals and enemies. This led to a period of time called the Cold War.
5. Many powerful and important Nazi were tried as war criminals at the Nuremberg Trials. 12 members of the Nazi regime were sentenced to death by hanging in 1946
.
http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/battle-of-stalingrad/videos
Full transcript