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Copy of Conditionals CAE

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Tim Warre

on 29 November 2015

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Transcript of Copy of Conditionals CAE

Conditionals CAE
Zero Conditional
1st Conditional
2nd Conditional
More Conditionals
1. If you see John, can you tell him to call me?
2. If you should see John, can you tell him to call me?
3. If you happen to see John, can you tell him to call me?
What's the difference between 1 and 2+3?
3rd Conditional
If + past perfect (had/hadn't + past part.) , result with would/could/might have + past part.
Hypothetical past events/actions.
More 2nd Conditional forms
1. Using
"were to" + infinitive
makes a 2nd conditional more formal.
If the government
were to invest
more in infrastructure, it would create more jobs.
If I
were to propose
to you, what would you say?
If I'm late for work, my boss gets angry
If/When + present, result = present.
Things that always happen.
If you heat water, it boils.
If the weather is nice, we'll go to the beach.
If you take up yoga, you'll lose weight.
If + present, result = future
Likely/probable future events.
In the first conditional, "happen to" and "should" can be used in the if-clause to express that something is possible but not very likely.
If you find my keys anywhere, please let me know.
If you should/happen to find my keys anywhere, please let me know.
Inverted Conditionals. How do we invert a conditional?
Should you see John, can you tell him to call me?
Should you find my keys anywhere, please let me know
The subject and the auxiliary change places and "if" is omitted.
If I pass the exam, I'll be ecstatic
If I should/happen to pass the exam, I'll be ecstatic
Should I pass the exam, I'll be ecstatic
If I get the job, I'll be over the moon.
Should I get the job, I'll be over the moon.
If I win the marathon, I'll........
Should I win the marathon, I'll.............
If I won the lottery, I would buy a mansion.
If I had more time, I would join a gym.
If + past simple, result = would/wouldn't
Hypothetical situations.
2.
Inverting the "were to"
structure makes it even more formal and fancy.
Were the government
to invest more in infrastructure, it would create more jobs.
Were I
to propose to you, what would you say?
Get rid of "if" and change subject/auxiliary order.
Change the following sentences using both forms:
If I moved to another country, I would choose................
If the world ended tomorrow, I would...........
If I met my hero, I would.............
If the company improved conditions, workers would be more productive.
If the local council spent more on maintenance, the metro stations wouldn't leak when it rained.
If I moved to another country, I would choose................
If I
were to move
to another country, I would choose....
Were I to move
to another country, I would choose.....

If the world ended tomorrow, I would...........
If the world
were to end
tomorrow, I would..........
Were the world to end
tomorrow, I would.........

If I met my hero, I would.............
If I
were to meet
my hero, I would.........
Were I to meet
my hero, I would..........

If the company improved conditions, workers would be more productive.
If the company
were to improve
conditions, workers would be more productive.
Were the company to improve
conditions, workers would be more productive.

If the local council spent more on maintenance, the metro stations wouldn't leak when it rained.
If the local council
were to spend
more on maintenance, the metro stations wouldn't leak when it rained.
Were the local council to spend more on maintenance, the metro stations wouldn't leak when it rained.
Note
We generally don't use the "were to" structure in conditionals with the verb "to be".

If I were the President, I would...........

If I were to be the President, I would...... (Grammatically correct but not used.

Inverted form:
Were I the President, I would....
If I should/happen to get the job, I'll be over the moon
If I should/happen to win the marathon, I'll.......
If he had woken up earlier, he wouldn't have missed the train.
If the goalkeeper hadn't been sent off, Arsenal might have beaten Bayern Munich.
Inverted 3rd Conditionals
You can also invert 3rd conditionals. Does anybody want to try?
If I had known you were coming, I would have bought more beer.
Had I known
you were coming, I would have bought more beer.
Get rid of "if" and change order of subject and auxiliary (had).
Careful with the negative:
If I hadn't seen the warning sign, I would have crashed into the river.
Had I not
seen the warning sign, I would have crashed into the river.
"not" comes after the subject.
Invert the following conditionals.
If she hadn't caught the earlier train, she wouldn't have caught her husband in bed with another woman.
Had she not caught
the earlier train, she wouldn't have......
If I had seen John at the party, I'd have said hello.
Had I seen
John at the party, I'd have said hello.
If I hadn't had to work last Saturday, I'd have gone to the concert.
Had I not had to
work last Saturday, I'd have gone to the concert.
Other Conditional Phrases
2nd Conditional:
If it weren't for
the satnav, we would be completely lost by now.
What does
"If it weren't for"
mean in this sentence?
Without/if we didn't have
the satnav, we would be completely lost by now.
We use
"If it weren't for"
with a
noun phrase
to express "without".
If it weren't for

my friends
, I would go crazy.
We can also use
"but for"
in place of
"If it weren't for"
But for
the satnav, we would be completely lost by now.
But for
my friends, I would go crazy.
3rd Conditional:
We can also use these phrases with the 3rd conditional, try to change the satnav sentence to 3rd conditional.
If it hadn't been for

the satnav
, we would have got completely lost.
But for

the satnav
, we would have got completely lost.
If it hadn't been for/But for

Batman
, the Joker would have destroyed the city.
If it hadn't been/But for

your help/advice
, I would have failed the exam.
Had it not been
for your help, I would have failed the exam.
Speaking:
Try to think of a time in the past when something could have happened differently if you hadn't had something. REMEMBER you can only use this structure with noun phrases: a friend/relative, an object/device, some help/advice. Try to think of some with more advanced nouns: enthusiasm/insistence/determination etc.
But for
Sarah's enthusiasm
, the project wouldn't have been so successful.
Still more conditional phrases
On condition that/provided/providing/as long as/so long as
- can all be used as an alternative to "If" in 1st conditional sentences.
I'll cook,
if/on condition that/provided/providing/as long as/so long as
you wash up afterwards.
Even if
- is used to emphasize the conditional clause
Even if
we never see each other again, I will always love you.
Even if
you miss the the wedding, you should get them a present.
Even if
you paid me €100,000, I wouldn't do that job.
Unless
- means "but not if"
We're going to the beach on Sunday,
unless
it rains.
Suppose/supposing
- can be used in
2nd/3rd conditional questions
to introduce a hypothetical situation. (great for article introductions)
Supposing/suppose
you won the lottery, what would you buy?
Suppose/supposing
you hadn't studied Maths, what would you have studied?
Otherwise/or else
- can be used to introduce an alternative situation.
(if not)
You'd better not be late,
otherwise/or else
you'll be in trouble.
Don't miss the last train,
otherwise/or else
you'll have to get a taxi.
Put a scarf on,
otherwise/or else
you'll catch a cold.
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