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Understanding and Shaping Behavior

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Alex Smith

on 24 October 2018

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Transcript of Understanding and Shaping Behavior

Understanding and Shaping Behavior
We have 3 Opportunities to Change Behavior
the behavior occurs:
A proactive teaching strategy
the occurrence of the behavior:
An immediate intervention
the behavior occurs:
A consequence to the action
Before: Proactive
After: Consequences
Core Values in the Behavior Shaping Process
. Prevention is the 1st response
What are we going to do to prevent the behavior/issue
2. Discipline, like instruction, is an opportunity
Help students learn new skills and replacement behaviors
3. Strategies, behavior intervention plans do not fulfill basic human needs
Only relationships do

"If you always do what you always did, you'll always get what you always got."

Moms Mabley
"The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results."

Albert Einstein
Food for Thought
"If a child doesn't know how to read, we _______."
"If a child doesn't know how to swim, we _______."
"If a child doesn't know how to multiply, we ______."
"If a child doesn't know how to drive, we _________."
"If a child doesn't know how to behave, we ________."
Learned Behavior
Research shows manipulation, cheating, teasing, bullying, and aggression, altruism, cooperation, sharing, and empathy are learned by:
Observational, vicarious experiences (seeing others perform the behavior and being rewarded)
Direct experiences (enacting the behavior and receiving a reward for doing so)
2. They don't know how to behave.
3. They don't have the skills to behave.
(Skill/Performance based)
4. They haven't been taught the appropriate replacement behavior
5. Psychological needs not met (belonging, empowerment, and fun)
Why do student's Misbehave?

Feelings, Needs, and Behaviors


Stress Model of Crisis


Conflict Cycle

Old Focus of Behavior
1. What does the student have?
a) Dealing with the
, rather than the behavior.
b) Making decisions based on a

2. When we make decisions about interventions based on the label or diagnosis,
a) addressing behaviors that are not actually displayed.
b)May miss behaviors that need to be addressed.
New Behavior Focus: Manifestation
How the behavior presents itself
a) Rather than the diagnosis of a disorder
b) Many behaviors cross-over

1. Eliminates special training in every disorder.
2. Allows for immediate attention to the problem
Overlapping Behaviors:
How Can We Decide on Appropriate Interventions?
Extreme changes in mood, energy, thinking, or behavior.
Repetitive behavior
Uncooperative, defiant, hostile
Inability to relate to peers
Difficulty Attending
Preoccupation/uncontrollable idea or emotion
To Deal with Resistance
1. Change resistance by accepting it
-Show interest in the other person's point of view (Empathy)
2. Look for areas of agreement
3. Play devil's advocate
-"If I were in your position, I would think/feel this way."
-"If you were in my position, how would you think/feel?"
4. Active Listening
5. Keep your friends close and your enemies closer.
Step 1: Define the Target Behavior
(The most challenging behavior(s)
Problem Behavior
Use the Fair Pair Rule
The principle which states that any intervention which aims to eliminate a nonfunctional behavior should include a component which teaches and/or increases a functional behavior.
Fighting - Detention
Blames others - Never blames others
Spitting - Spits on Herself
Hitting - Never hits

Sits and does nothing - Will ask for help
Argues - Discusses Appropriately
Truant - Attends School
Swears - Uses Appropriate Language
Hits - Asking adult to help with conflict
Blames others - Uses "I" statements
Develop Positive Behavior Goal/Objectives
Eric will refrain from hitting others when angry.
Randy will not have verbal outbursts during classroom instruction.
Irene will refrain from hitting.
Gretchen will not lie.
Burt will not throw things.
Eric will use one of the anger management techniques
Irene will raise her hand and wait to be called on.
Chris will count to 10 (to cool down).
Ben will walk away from teasing.
Jill will raise her hand to ask for assistance when frustrated.
How long does it take you to progress
from Ignorance to Mastery?

How many repetitions do you need to become masterful?
Cognitive Ability

Above Average
Below Average
Move the desks farther apart.
Use tape lines to designate activity-specific areas
Use visual barriers (file cabinets, book shelves).
Adjust room lighting
Put unnecessary items out of sight and reach.
Adjust lesson levels
Adjust room temperature
Divide assignments into two or more part
Clear Rules, Expectations, and Consequences
Teaching Social Skills: First Steps to Success, Mind Up, Second Step (K-8), School-Connect (high school)
16 Proactive Classroom Management Strategies

1. Organizing a productive classroom
2. Systematic establishment of a positive relationship with all students in the class
3. Positive greetings at the door to pre-correct and establish positive climate
4. Classroom rules/expectations and procedures are visible and known by every student
5. Transitions are managed well
6. Independent seat work is managed and used when needed
7. Communicating competently w/ students
8. Teach, model, and reinforce pro social skills
9. Teacher proximity
10. Motivation system to reward desirable behavior
11. Goal setting and performance feedback
12. Visual schedule of classroom activities
13. Effective cuing systems to release and regain attention
14. 5 to 1 ratio of positive : negative interactions
15. Smiling and pleasant affect
16. High student engagement techniques used

Caring gesture
Hurdle help
Redirection and distractions
Choices (used as warning too)
Directive statements
Time away (Refocus time)
Verbal Praising (Quiet, Individual, Group, Pivot)
Positive and Negative Reinforcers (Know difference between reinforcer and reward)
4 Elements of Reinforcement (Power, Frequency, Variety, and Immediacy)
Shape, Model, Cue, and Pace

During: Behavior Support Techniques

Important to establish consequences for undesirable behavior.
Least restrictive to most (Pyramid)
Should be logical and natural
Parent communication is essential
Using punishment as a motivator without 5 to 1: Fight or Flight
What is your plan of action in the classroom?
Possible Functions
To Gain:
To Escape:
Access to an item
Sensory Input
Sensory Overload
Behavior is learned
Takes time to change behavior
Look for the function of the behavior
Teach replacement behaviors
Be proactive
Be building relationships with students
Have a plan of action
Build up a toolbox of interventions
5 to 1 ratio of positive vs. negative
Deal with behavior privately
Teach rules and expectations weekly
Be ready for anything
iTunes University

Practical Findings from Scientific Research
Academic and Emotional/Behavior problems are connected (Not Separated)

Behavior problems cause academic problems

In turn, academic problems cause behavior problems
Dumfrase Needed

The Bogo also bluchia the
need to invest more in cucio blanco,
40 percent which now lack basic sumwalz.
Kolo said cucio for 28 buttos momos will be
frazequack by the year 2010, and that kudeos
tumpos in blocka will incrase planknotta.

(14 unknown words and 68% known words)
Investments Needed

The Bogo also recognizes the need
to invest more in cucio themselves,
40 percent of which now lack basic plumbing.
Ligachev said cucio for 28 million momos will be built by the year 2010, and that capital expenditures in blocka will increase drastically.

(4 unknown words and 91% known words)
Investments Needed

The Kremlin also recognizes the need
to invest more in schools themselves,
40 percent of which now lack basic plumbing.
Ligachev said schools for 28 million pupils will be built by the year 2010, and capital expenditures in education will increase drastically.
Popular Yet Ineffective Treatments
Treatment/Intervention Effect Size

Punitive discipline -.13 to +.06
Referral to outside counseling .00 to +.08
Meeting with the student .00
Analyze cognitive strengths and weakness .00
Alternative School Placement -.10 to +.04
Less Popular Treatments That Do Work
Treatment Effect
PBIS +.90
Mentor-Based Support +.60 to +1.00
Social Emotional Learning +.90
Social Skills Training +.68
Proactive Classroom Management +.81
FBA +1.00
Supplemental Academic Instruction +.70 to +1.50
Behavior Contract, Self-Monitoring > +.50
Group Based Contingency + .81
Evidence-based Tier II Interventions
Mentor-based Support (Check in/Check out)
Behavior Contracting
School-home note system
Dependent group contingency (one student earns for all)
Progress Monitoring combined with rewarding goal attainment
Class Pass Intervention
Positive Peer Reporting
Kavale (2005); Blueprints for Promising Treatments
Tier I Interventions
School Wide PBIS
SEL Curriculum
Good Behavior Game
Proactive Classroom Management
The Tough Kid Tool Box

By: William Jenson
Concrete Definition
Sue is aggressive

Carlos is disrespectful

John is hyperactive
Sue throws her book and other possessions
at other students when she is frustrated
with her work.
Carlos rolls his eyes at authority figures
when given commands by them.
John does not sit for more than a few minutes
at a time.
Example of Least to Most Restrictive:
Proximity, Voice Control, Distraction, Eye Contact, Rule Reminder, Rewards, Token Economy, Loss of Privileges, Phone Call Home, Separation from Group, Referral to Principal
5 Common Reasons Students Misbehave
1. Testing of Limits
2. Attention
3. Power
4. Revenge
5. Display of Inadequacy
Tier III: BSP based on an FBA
"Discipline without a relationship leads to rebellion."
Dr. Josh McDowell
"All kids can learn, they just learn at different times and on different days."
Tips for Dealing with Attention Seeking
Ignore misbehavior when possible
Give attention to positive behaviors
Use Reinforcements
Tips for Students when Testing Limits
Be Proactive
Use Reinforcements
Students Misbehave when Seeking Power
Give Options/Choices
Set a time limit for making a decision
Withdraw from conflict, but do not back down on consequences
Someone else can help carry through these consequences
Don't play the game
Students Misbehave when Seeking Revenge
Avoid feeling hurt
Avoid punishment (retaliation)
Build a trusting relationship
Find a common interest
Convince student, he/she is loved
Someone else may assist in the consequence
Students Misbehave to Display an Inadequacy.
Stop all criticism
Encourage any positive attempt, no matter how small
Don't be hooked into showing pity
Differentiate instruction
What does education mean?
Taken from Latin word "educo"
Means to draw out from within
You got to reach them before you can teach them.
Students learn more for their teachers than from their teachers.
Teach students to be resilience.
Lawrence Kohlberg
Different Stages of Self-Discipline
1. The Power Stage: Might Makes Right
2. Self-Serving Behavior: The reward/punishment stage: What's in it for me?
3. The Mutual Interpersonal Stage: How can I please you?
4. Self Discipline Stage: I behave because it is the right thing to do.
Proactive Teacher
Reactive Teacher
Behavior Contrast Theory
- Something occurred that the student wanted
- Something was removed that the student wanted removed

occurring because:
- It is inefficient in getting something desired
- It produces something undesired
- It produces the removal of something desired

Old Response
Focus on rule breaking vs. positive behavior (card pulling)
Office Referrals
Humiliation and isolation (public)
Get tough and zero tolerance
Don't smile till Christmas
Put them in Special Education
Teacher Belief barriers (Extrinsic reinforcers harm intrinsic motivation, Co-Shift)
"I already did that."
New Way
Preventative supports with universal system of behavior supports
Proactive screening to catch students early
Independently Scientific research based strategies
Differentiated Instruction
Teaching behavior
Sample Consequences for Noncompliance
1. 30 seconds
2. 47 seconds
3. 1 minute, 13 seconds
4. 1 minute 28 seconds
5. 2 minutes, 7 seconds

Steps are small and arranged in a hierarchy.

Request in question form

Verbal prompts

small threats/warnings

Large threats

Withdraws or changes request/




Teach students the definitions for:

Staying Calm
Following Directions

1. Sitting quietly

2. Looking at the teacher

1. Sitting quietly

2. Doing your work
Following Directions

1. Look at the teacher

2. Say "OK"

3. Follow the direction
Staying Calm

1. Stop
2. Take a deep breath
3. Count to 5 to yourself
4. Say "OK"
5. Follow the direction
- Be Safe
- Be Ready
- Be Respectful
Display rules, expectations, and consequences in your classroom

What is Fair?
Fair is not everyone getting the same thing. Fair is everyone getting what they need.
Common Mistakes the Super Nanny Does Not Make
Low reinforcing environment + low punisher=little contrast, high off-task behavior likely
Low reinforcing environment + high punisher=escape or fight response
High reinforcing environment, no/low response=little contrast, reduced learning likely
Contrast must be between highly reinforcing environment and appropriate response cost.
BIP: Alter environment to achieve this contrast and know the function
Some Examples
Student gets an A on the assignment, and the parents are pleased ... the behavior repeats!!
Student gets sent to the office, allowing escape from a situation student wants to escape ... the behavior repeats!!!
Student uses a difficult social skill successfully, but no outcome occurs...the behavior does not repeat!!
The student reads a book and gets a homework pass...the behavior repeats!!
Student is required to write a debrief analysis of a problem behavior and produce an apology after a problem behavior...the behavior is not likely to repeat unless public acclaim is given during the apology, in which case the payoff was desirable, and the problem behavior will repeat!
John Wooden
"To make sure this goal was achieved, I created eight laws of learning, namely, explanation, demonstration, imitation, repetition, repetition, repetition, repetition, and repetition."
I Spy
Secret Signals
Group Cotengencies
Secret Agent
Love Notes
Mr. Potato Head
Principal 200
Bring stuff animal to school
Earning the good behavior medal
Name on Marquee
Picture in hall
Total # Gotchas handed out to date
Rent bulletin board space
Football bulletin board
Complimant Board
Sit and watch
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