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F. Cultural, Social and Political Institutions

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Transcript of F. Cultural, Social and Political Institutions

F. Cultural, Social and Political Institutions
Laurence Mcquarrie F. Marbella
What is the family?
Tokyo’s financial district has started to invest in working mothers. Nearly 70 percent of the employers want women to stay longer on the job. This was the result of a 1991 Recruit Survey, which showed a growing awareness of nurturing female talent to tackle Japan’s growing labor shortage. Faced with the latest birth rate- 1.53 children per woman, Japan cannot afford to let women choose between work and motherhood.
Thank you!
Political Leadership Structures
Political organizations:
Economic Institutions
It has been reported that pulmonary tuberculosis remains the number one illness of teachers in the public elementary and secondary schools, especially those assigned in remote places.
This is caused by overwork and inability to afford proper medication due to inadequate income.

Teachers put in eight hours of work in school and continues their work at home at night. Their activities besides classroom teaching includes writing lesson plans, devising teacher’s aids for the classroom, checking pupils’ test papers, and filling out pupils’ records and reports. Reading professional books to update their competence is done when there is still available time.
Added to these are the household chores for their family, then, there are also numerous community activites, such as census taking, beutification and cleanliness campaigns, reforestation and fund raising.
There are also home visits to pupils with problems, organizing school and homeroom parent-teachers association, adult education, classes for-out-of-school youth.
Statistics from the Philippine Public School Teachers Association reveal that of the average 70 teaacher-members who die every moth, 50 percent are victims of TB
Teachers’ examination by DepEd show at least 25 out of 1,000 are ill with pulmonary TB. The Bicol region and Western Visayas had the most number of teacher afflicted.

Understand the role of different institutions (e.g., school, government, religion, economic, health and family in our life. 

Assess what system of norms influences our behavior. 

Religion and Belief system
Today we commemorate the birth of our dear loved ones, MARIA and ELISEO. Even though they are not here physically present for they have gone ahead of us in the Father’s kingdom, yet we remember them because they were a part of our experience that cannot be forgotten. But more than that today, in our Eucharistic Sacrifice that we offer, we commemorate the feast of the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ or Corpus Christi. This is the greatest of all commemoration, which we offer to Jesus himself. And he promise us that “Whoever will eat my body and drink my blood will have eternal life. “I am sure that our loved ones, MARIA and ELISEO who ate the Body and drank the Blood of Jesus are now enjoying the gift of eternal life in our Father’s Kingdom. I am sure too that they are experiencing the happiness which they have now if we, as we receive the Body and Blood of Christ, are able to go beyond our human weakness and limitations and be able to how and witness the Christian life in our day to day living. Thus, in our prayer today, we pray for MARIA and ELISEO that they will intercede for us, all, sinners, that we may have a place in the Father’s Kingdom
Culture specific syndromes and illnesses 

Systems of diagnosis, prevention and healing 

Health as a human right 

In the Philippines, what is our attitude towards working mothers? What is our concept of a “dutiful” wife? Should Filipino women juggle children and a career?
Functions of the Family
The family, as the basic social institution, performs manifold functions some of which are reinforced and supported by other social institutions.
The family regulates sexual behavior and is the unit for reproduction
The family performs the functions of biological maintenance. The human infant is born helpless and the parents fill the roles of protector, providers, and guardian.
The family is the chief agency for socializing the child. The family transmits the culture of the group, its patterned ways of living and values through examples, teaching, or indoctrination.
The family gives its members status. A child is born into a family which gives him or her a name and a lineage
The family is an important mechanism for social control. It continually exerts pressure on its members to make them conform to what considers as desirable behavior.
The family performs economic functions, specially in simple societies
Is an institution consisting of a cluster of mores and folkways, of attitudes, ideas, and ideals, of social definitions and legal restrictions
Religious View
Is a union between husband and wife. It is a lifelong Commitment. “for better or worse, for richer or poorer, in health or sickness, until death do us part”.

Legal point of view
Marriage is a special contract of permanent union between a man
and woman entered into in accordance with law for the establishment of conjugal and family life.
(Article 1, Title 1, Family Code)
People marry for a combination of reason: love, economic, and emotional security, the parents’ wishes, escape from loneliness or an unhappy home situation, money, companionship, protection, adventure, common interests, (Bowman 1970)
Forms of Marriage
The form of marriage practiced in a society affects the structure of the family’s larger kinship group. The accepted form may be either monogamous or polygamous

Monogamy permits a man to take only one spouse at a time
Polygamy is plural marriage and may assume three forms:
Polygyny- is the marriage of one man to two or more women at the same time
Polyandry- is the marriage of a woman to two or more men at the same time

The formal requisites of marriage:
Authority of the solemnizing officer (judge or priest) 

Marriage license issued by competent authority 

A marriage ceremony which takes place in the presence of the solemnizing officer and their personal declaration that they take each other as husband (consent freely given) and wife in the presence of at least two credible witnesses of legal age 

Marriage Impediments: • Age. 
• Impotence.
• Previous marriage • Abduction
• Consanguinity
• Legal Adoption 

Filipino Family
Filipino family in general is still monogamous.
They play a unique role for the child as it gives him affection, care, attention, protection and engenders in him a sense of belonging or security.
Is an institution of security that protects its members from exigencies of living.
The members are bound to help each other.
The Filipino family founded on love and affection, sanctified by marital virtue is cohesive in nature.
It is governed in the best tradition of human rights and of understanding of each and every member of the family
Dissolution of Marriage:
Legal Separation
is a judicial declaration when the separation of man
and wife merely entitles the spouses to live separately in the bed and does not dissolve marriage.
Grounds for legal separation are the following:
Adultery on the part of the wife or concubinage on the part of the husband. 

Attempt by one spouse against the life of the other. 

Physical violence or moral pressure to compel the petitioner to change religious or political affiliation. 

Repeated physical violence or grossly abusive conduct directed against petitioner, a common child, or a common child petitioner. 

Attempt of the respondents to corrupt or induce the petitioner common child or a child of the petitioner, or to engage in prostitution or connivance in such corruption or inducement. 

Is a way to dissolve a marriage, declaring the marriage void from the very start.
Grounds for annulment of marriage:
Absence of parental consent if one of the parties is eighteen years old but below twenty-one. 

• Either of the party was of unsound mind; 

• Consent of either party was obtained by fraud. 

• Force, intimidation or undue influence obtained consent of either party. 

• Physical incapacity 

• Affliction of serious and incurable sexually transmitted disease. 

1. Why is the family considered the basic social institution?

2. What is marriage?

3.How is marriage related to the family?
Discuss the functions of the family?

Topic for Research
Make a study of the courtship practices in your school. How was the impact of Westernization affected courtship practice

Bands and tribes (foraging bands, tribal cultivators, the village head, the “Big Man”, nomadic politics 

Chiefdoms (political system, social status, stratification) 

States and nations (population control, judiciary) 

Social Control (Hegemony, Weapons of the weak, politics) 

Authority and legitimacy
Power lies at the heart of a political system (Max Weber) Power is the ability to exercise one’s will over others.

Types of authority:
legitimate power is conferred by custom and accepted practice. (e.g. King, Emperor, Sultan)
Legal rational
Leaders derive their legal – rational authority from the written rules and regulations of political systems, such as the Constitution (e.g. US constitution gives Congress and the president the authority to enforce law) 

refers to power made legitimate by a leaders exceptional personal or emotional appeal to his or her follower (e.g. Joan of Arc, Martin Luther King, Adolf Hitler Jesus, Gandhi, Malcolm X, ) 
As Weber observed, the power can be legitimized by the charisma of an individual 

Government (Art. VI, VII, VIII)
A government is the aggregate of authorities that rule society and must be obeyed by its people.
laissez faire (let them do – British economist, Adam Smith)
free enterprise system
- Regulated vs, deregulated
(refined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels) 

Informal economy/black economy/underground economy - transfer of money, goods or services takes place but are not reported to the government (selling goods on the street, gambling, drug dealing) 

Non State Institutions
Cooperatives and trade unions 

Transnational advocacy groups 

Developmental agencies 

International organizations - A multinational corporation is usually a large corporation which produces or sells goods or services in various countries. 

Sociologically speaking, education is the consciously controlled process whereby changes in behavior are produced in the person and through the person in the group. Its ultimate goal is the effective participation of the individual in social relation.
Educational Structure
Education is defined as a preparation for effective participation in school relations (Horton & Hunt 1972). Sociologically speaking, education is the consciously controlled process whereby changes in behavior are produced in the person and through the person in the group. Its ultimate goal is the effective participation of individual in social relations. Education may be formal or informal.

Informal education consists of learning through interaction with others in the group. Ideas and facts are acquired through suggestion, observation, example, imitation, and inculcation from the family, playgroup, neighborhood, or occupational group. Books, newspapers, magazines, radio, movies, and television are important instruments through which information and attitudes are acquired or learned.
Non-formal education consists of sets of definite learning goals and objectives, generally making use of a more flexible curriculum, less rigid, admission procedures, and more participative teaching methods. Non formal education is not covered by the traditional school system. This type of education usually runs in short durations and, in many instances, seeks only to teach the student a specific skill.
Non formal education is usually administered by social organizations, private companies, government offices, livelihood training centers, and other institutions.

Formal education, on the other hand, is synonymous with school. It sets definite objectives and goals reached through systematized, formal instruction and methods. Traditionally, formal education is divided into the pre-school level such as nursery and kindergarten, the elementary level, the junior high school level and the senior high school level and tertiary or university level
Formal education may be run by state, by private individuals, or corporations, or by religious groups.
A preparation for effective participation in social relations.
A right to education has been created and recognized by some
Since 1952, Article 2 of the first Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education
At the global level, the United Nations' International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966 guarantees this right under its Article 13.
RA 10157 – Kindergarten Act
4.RA 10533 – Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013
Functionalist view of education
Manifest: transmission of knowledge
a. transmitting culture b. promoting social and political integration c. maintaining social control d. serving as an agent of change
Education as an agent of change
Indigenous education
refers to the inclusion of indigenous knowledge, models, methods and content within formal and non-formal educational systems 

it can enable indigenous communities to “reclaim and revalue their languages and cultures, and in so doing, improve the educational success of indigenous students
Alternative education
also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, is a broad term that may be used to refer to all forms education outside of traditional education
is an increasingly influential factor in education:
E-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning
and teaching. The information and communication systems,
whether networked learning or not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process. 

online-education (distance education) 

Multimedia (virtual learning environment) 

PowerPoint and interactive whiteboard 

Audience Response Service (ARS) – which allows immediate feedback tests and classroom discussion 

The Functions of Education
The school emerged important as societies became more modern and complex. The goals of education have remained essentially the same in all societies. They vary only in methods and emphasis. Within the same society, however, educational institutions may vary. The functions of education are (Popenoe 1974)
1. To transmit the cultural heritage (knowledge, language, mathematics, and science subjects)

2. To help individuals select social roles and to train them for the roles they have chosen;

3. To integrate into the cultural mainstream the various subcultures and identities; and

4. To serve as a source of social and cultural innovation.
Education in the Philippines
Study Guide:
1. How does sociologists view education? What are involved in education?
2. Describe the various educational structures.
3. Describe the features of education in simple societies. What were the features of education during the Spanish regime? During the American regime? How have these features affected the present educational system?
4. Discuss the function of education
Comment on the various trends in education

Topics for research
Make a survey of the attitudes of students of any social science class conducted bilingually
Interview any teacher in the school and inquire about his or her attitudes on the continuous progression scheme.

it bodies one of the beliefs of the Catholic religion- the gift of eternal life and the way of life expected of those who profess the religion.

- Like the family and the economy, religion is a universal and pervasive phenomenon, a part of the cultural system, because it is assumed to meet some basic need of human being.

- Religion is an integrated part of human experience and show remarkable continuity of time.

- Religion is interwoven with the social, economic, and political life of the people

- A sociologist’s main concern in the study of religion is not to establish the truth or falsity of a certain religion but to look into its structure, organization, and role and to observe how it affects and influences an individual or society.

What is Religion?
Etymologically, religion comes from the Latin word religare, which means “to bind together,” in the religion of preliterate societies, the various phenomena of nature are associated with a number of different personalities, and in many instances, numerous nature deities are honored.
Unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things; that is to say things set apart and forbidden beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a church, all those Who adhere them.(Emile Durkheim).

Important in the practice of religion is the observance of rituals which prescribe some courses of action dealing with the sacred.

To Giddens (1989) all religion involves a set of symbols which arouses feelings of reverence or awe and are linked to rituals or ceremonials such as church services practiced by a community of believers. On religion there are sacred symbols which may be beings, objects, acts or events that inspire awe or wonder.
Functions of Religion:
Religion gives one “Peace of mind” – the function of religion in all cultures is to discover a road to spiritual serenity or to achieve “peace of mind”
Religion legitimize the foundation of the society’s culture and integrates the value system of society.

Religion integrates and maintains fundamental values from ultimate values of the Supreme Being to the subordinate, material, and practical values.

Religion allays the fear and anxieties of individuals by reassuring them of the care and protection of their deity
Religion provides norms of behavior for proper conduct of the daily activities of the people and provides guidance for behavior.
Religion integrates and promote group solidarity.
Religion performs welfare, education and recreation functions 

Religious Organization
As Durkheim says, religious have communities of adherents. There are various ways by which these communities are organized. The German scholar Troeltsh (1961) draws the fundamental distinction on the interplay between religion’s ideology and rituals on the one hand, and the form of religious organization on the other, coming up with the difference between ecclesia (church and sect.

The ecclesia is the dominant religion of the society which becomes an integral part of the social order. It has an elaborate formal bureaucratic structure with its hierarchy of church officials and well-developed dogmas and rituals.
The leader administer the sacraments and provide guidance and direction for the members.
Examples of the ecclesia are the Catholic Church in Spain, the Anglican Church in England, and the Islam in Saudi Arabia
Sect is comparatively small as it is usually group that has broken away from a parent church. Its membership is limited and is drawn mostly from the lower class. It has little formal organization, is concerned with evangelism, and emphasizes fundamentalist teachings.

An example of sect which acquired stable membership and developed organization is the Iglesia ni Kristo.
Cult is similar to the sect but is usually small-size group which is very loosely organized and transient. The attraction centers around a dominant or charismatic leader, and its beliefs and rites deviate from the traditional beliefs in the society and call for a new and unusual lifestyle.

Example of cult are Rizalistas of Luzon, cargo-cults in southern Luzon and Visayas, the Sapilada among the Bontocs, and the Spiritualist.
Related social concepts in religion:
• Folk Catholicism – refers to the indigenous practices and old beliefs of the people which are interwoven into Catholic official practices. Example: beliefs in ecncantos, anting-anting, talismans.
Split-level of Christianity – refers to the situation where there is coexistence within the same person of two or more thought-and-behavior systems which are inconsistent with each other. Catholics who commit graft and corruption and attend the mass every Sunday.
Faith Healing – refers to indigenous practice of faith healers who serves as mediums for healing energy. This is done by invoking power though empathy and reliance on the faith of the patient.
Occult – derived from Latin “occultus” which means mysterious practices related to supernatural forces beyond the five senses. Included version and practices and beliefs is astrology, magic, witchcraft, numerology, crystal ball gazing, spiritism and fortune telling.
Invisible or private religion –the practice of the many people who are critical of organized religion, to focus on certain ultimate themes and private experiences such as intimacy, work, or peace of mind rather than on the issues of central to traditional religion.
Fundamental Revival – a religious practice of the many people who retrieve the powerful spirit of traditional religion but adapting it to modern life. It stresses evangelization and piety, absolute authority of the Bible, personal conversion and salvation.
Electronic church – refers to the form of religious expressions using radio and television programs that reinforce traditional beliefs and ultimate themes of private religions, autonomy, self-realization and essence of the family. Among the stars of “electronic church” in the US are Jimmy Lee Swaggart, Jim Bakker. IN the Philippines, we can mention Bro. Mike Velarde, Bro. Eddie VZillanueva and Ely Soriano of Dating Daan.
Separation of Church and State
In keeping with democratic principles, there is separation of Church and States in the Philippines, a condition which has existed since Revolutionary period as decreed in the Malolos Constitution and incorporated in the subsequent Constitutions. Article II Section 6 of the 1987 Constitution expressly provides: The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable.
Folk Catholicism
In spite of the conversion of the country to Roman Catholicism, rural people are still oriented towards local traditions and the pre-Christian beliefs in spirits and charms- the mangkukulam, the anting-anting, the nuno sa punso, the aswang and the likes.

Social anthropologist have used the term”folk Catholicism” to describe this situation. A distinction may be made between official catholicim, non-official Catholicism, and folk Catholicism.
Official Catholicism refers to the doctrines and rituals which are prescribed, approved of, and maintained as normative. The non-official component comprises the elements which are viewed as harmless but suspects and unorthodox by officially designated church authorities. Among the non-official practices are walking to the altar on one’s knees, going on pilgrimages, dancing before the image of some saints, or wearing an habito or distinctive dress in honor of the Virgin Mary or some saints.
Study guide
1. Why is religion a pervasive and universal institution?

2. What is religion? Describe its nature. Do you consider communism a religion why?

3. Why is the observance of rituals important in religion? Describe the religious rituals in some of our ethnic groups.

4. Differentiate the ecclesia from the sect, denomination, and cult. How do these groups affect the society? Have you had contacts with members of some sects? How do they feel about their religion?

Topic for research
- Observe some folk practices in the community where you come from. Describe the practices of old folks in the celebration of religious activities in your parish.

- Describe the social action and/or welfare activities of your parish.

- a condition of poor health perceived or felt by an individual. (Inhorn & Brown 1990)
a scientifically identified health threat caused genetically by a bacterium, virus, fungus, parasites or other pathogen.
Health as a Human Right
Section 15
The State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill health consciousness among them.

Republic Act No. 10354 – promotion and protection for the right to health of women especially mothers.
Republic Act No. 10643 – right of the people to the highest standard of health 

Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act Co. 2012informally known as the Reproductive Health Law or RH Law, which guarantees universal access to methods on contraception, fertility control, sexual education, and maternal care. 

Educational systems reflected the economic, political, social, and religious values of society. Philippine education has been influenced mostly by the Spanish and American systems. Early Historian, however, maintain that before the coming of the Spaniards, the Filipinos knew how to read and write Jocana (1975) wrote that a system of writing existed among ancient Filipino.
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