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Transcript of Aerobic Respiration
Each glucose is split into 2 triose phosphates (3C).
Trisose phosphate is oxidised and the hydrogens are transferred to NAD to produce NADH
Each triose phosphate is then converted to pyruvate (3C) whilst 2 ATPs are regenerated from ADP
It occurs in the cytoplasm
4 ATP molecules (net gain of 2 ATP) and 2NADH
This step does not require oxygen
What's aerobic respiration?
Cellular respiration allows organisms to release energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose. The energy in glucose is used to produce ATP, cells use ATP to supply their energy needs.
Aerobic respiration requires oxygen in order to generate ATP
C6H12O6 (s) + 6 O2 (g) --> 6 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (l) + heat
The cell undergoes 4 stages during aerobic respiration:
The Krebs Cycle
The Electron Transport System
Step 1: Pyruvate from glycolysis enter the matrix of the mitochondrion by active transport
Step 2: Pyruvate is oxidised (hydrogen is removed) and the hydrogen ions are accepted by NAD
Pyruvate - Hydrogen =
3 carbon molecule + NADH+
Step 3: The three-carbon molecules undergo decarboxylation (carbon dioxide is removed) and forms a 2-carbon acetyl group.
3C molecule - CO2 = acetyl group
Step 4: The acetyl group binds to the CoA enzyme to form acetyl CoA
acetyl group + CoA = acetyl CoA
(Citric Acid Cycle)
Step 1: The acetyl group from the acetyl CoA binds to citric acid, a 4-carbon molecule (oxaloacetate)
Acetyl group + 4C = 6C molecule (citrate)
Step 2: The 6-carbon molecule undergoes oxidative phosphorylation to form a 5-carbon molecule (alpha-ketoglutarate).
6C - CO2 and H+ = 5C molecule
Step 3: The 5-carbon molecule undergoes oxidative carboxylation again to form a 4-carbon molecule (succinate)
5C - CO2 and H+ = 4C molecule
Step 4: The 4-carbon molecule donates 2 phosphate groups to 2 ADP to form 2 ATP (phosphorylation). It also undergoes oxidation one more time and donates hydrogens to form NADH+ and FADH2. The remaining molecule is a new citric acid.
4C - phosphates and hydrogen = citric acid, FADH2, NADH+H+, and 2 ATP
The purpose of the Krebs cycle is to regenerate NADH+ and FADH2, not to produce ATP - it's not efficient for that
Electron Transport System (ETS)
Step 1: NADH+ and FADH2 from the Krebs Cycle donate their extra hydrogen ions
Step 2: These hydrogen ions gp down a chain of proteins carriers embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion and release energy at each carrier protein.
Step 3: The hydrogen ions pass through the proteins out of the matrix and into the intermembrane space. A concentration gradient quickly develops. This is active transport, because energy is required to move the ions against their concentration gradient.
Step 4: The ions move along their concentration gradient and pass through ATP synthase from the intermembrane space to the matrix. When they pass through ATP synthase, they release energy that is used to add phosphate groups to ADP and form ATP.
Step 5: Once the hydrogen ions have been used, they are accepted by oxygen atoms (final acceptor).
36 ATP are produced
2 from the Krebs Cycle
34 from the ETS
CO2 is produced as a byproduct
Water is produced at the end of the ETS - each oxygen atom accepts two hydrogen ions to form an H2O molecule
Most of cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondria.
The mitochondria is a double membrane bound organelle.
The outer membrane encloses an inner membrane called the cristae. Cristae greatly increase the surface area on which reactions take place in electron transport chain.
The area inside the cristae is called the matrix. The Krebs Cycle occurs in the matrix.