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Molecular Models

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Maggie Hathcoat

on 29 January 2014

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Transcript of Molecular Models

Molecular Models
enzymes
sugars
dehydration synthesis
hydrolysis
peptide bond
glycosidic linkage
covalent bond
polymer
3 di saccharides
3 mono saccharides
glycerol
saturated fatty acids
unsaturated fatty acids
maltose
sucrose
A.k.a. maltobiose or malt sugar is reducing disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with a glycosidic bond, formed from a condensation reaction; the structural unit of a glycogen and starch. Commonly found in germinating grains.
The organic compound commonly known as table sugar and sometimes called saccharose. It is a white, odorless, crystaline powder with a sweet taste, it is best known for its role in food. Sucrose is a non-reducing disaccharide.
lactose
A disaccharide sugar derived from galactose and glucose that is found in milk. Lactose makes up around 0-8% of milk, although the amt. varies among species and individuals. It is extracted from sweet or sour whey. It consists of galactose and glucose, where an enzyme called lactase can break lactose into two smaller components. Microorganisms convert lactose to pyruvic acid, which for example results in sour milk.
galactose
fructose
glucose
A sugar less sweet than glucose and cannot be broken down into a simpler form of sugar.
A fruit sugar more soluble than glucose, found in many plants, where it is often bonded to clucose to form disaccharide sucrose.
A simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates. It is one of the three mono saccharides that are absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion. A major source of energy for the cells.
A fat composed of fatty acids in which all of the internal carbon atoms contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms.
A fat composed of fatty acids in which one or more do not have the maximum hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atoms.
A simple Polyol Compound. Sugar Alcohol Compound.
glucose
A common six carbon sugar.
amino acids
The subunit structure from which proteins are produced.
A chemical substance in animals and plants that helps to cause natural processes (such as digestion.)
A class of chemically-related sweet-flavored substances, most of which are used as food. They are carbohydrates, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
A chemical reaction that binds up molecules by losing water molecules.
A chemical reaction in which the interaction of a compound with water results in the decomposition of that compound.
A covalent chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with amino group of the other molecule, causing the release of a molecule of water.
A long molecule built by linking together a large number of small, similar chemical subunits. For example, nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides. Proteins are polymers of amino acids.
Two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons.
The covalent bond between two monosaccharides to form a disaccharide. A type of bond that joins a carbohydrate molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.
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