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Legacy of my Mexico´s Cultural Heritage

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Sergio Quiñones

on 20 July 2015

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Transcript of Legacy of my Mexico´s Cultural Heritage

Legacy of Mexico´s
Cultural Heritage

Application to the Global MBA Program from IE Business School
by Sergio Quiñones G.

Get ready to land on the
indigenous culture
of
Mexico
Indigenous Languages
According to the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI), in the census of the population in 2010, they accounted for a total:
92 different
indigenous languages
6.69 million people spoke indigenous languages
Nahuatl, Maya and Mixteco were the most spoken indigenous languages

Indigenous Languages
Reference:
http://cuentame.inegi.org.mx/hipertexto/todas_lenguas.htm
Each of indigenous languages in Mexico provides a
great intellectual value
on linguistic diversity in the world, so it is very important to preserve them and prevent their total disappearance.

Understanding each indigenous language opens the door to pre-hispanic times, in order to understand where Mexico comes from, creating
knowledge over its ancestors
.


The famous researcher of ancient Mexico, Dr. Miguel Leon Portilla, particularly in the field of literature and philosophy of the
Nahuatl language
, presented an interesting reflection on the relation between the
codex and texts of oral tradition
. Especially illustrative is the example of the concept Mixteco, which brings a painted tree in the
Vindobonensis Codex
, which is preserved in the San Juan Mixtepec area. The codex gives information through its images, and it was read and understood by Dominicans Monks (Antonio de los Reyes, Gregorio Garcia, Francisco de Burca), wich had a vast knowledge of the indigenous language.
Reflection Note:
Reference: http://www.historicas.unam.mx/publicaciones/revistas/nahuatl/pdf/ecn30/590.pdf
Traditional Mexican
Cuisine
The mexican cuisine was inscribed in 2010 on the Representative List of the
Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity
by UNESCO.

"Traditional Mexican cuisine is a comprehensive cultural model comprising farming, ritual practices, age-old skills, culinary techniques and ancestral community customs and manners." (UNESCO website: www.unesco.org)
Traditional Mexican Cuisine
The Mexican cuisine is a
living cultural event
, with old historical continuity and originality of products, techniques and procedures.

Mexico is one of the few centers of
domestication of cultivated plants
, including corn, squash, chilies, cacao, papaya, prickly pear, tomato, snuff, vanilla, cotton, agave, avocado, beans, tomatoes, among other.

The variety of pre-hispanic ingredients, are the product of a merger between the
country's immense biodiversity and cultural diversity
. Moreover, since the arrival of the Spaniards, they have been incorporating a lot of elements of many regions of the world.
Please press play to watch the following video
Handcrafts and folk art
Handcrafts and folk art
Dances and Clothes
National pre-Hispanic Holidays
Mexico’s colorful folk art and handicrafts have been passed down through generations among indigenous groups, the same techniques and skills are still used today.

Handcraft art is a
complex collection of objects
made of various materials, with decorative purposes, which can also be used in everyday life. They are presented in a wide variety such as: vases, toys, objects for celebrations, festivities and religious rites.
For Mexico, the handcraft is closely related to the
national identity
and is related to the
indigenous identity
of the country.

Since the early twentieth century until today, the Mexican folk art has
inspired famous artists
such as Diego Rivera, Rufino Tamayo, Jose Clemente Orozco Fernandez Ledezma, Luis Nishizawa and many others.

Miguel Covarrubias and Salvador Novo defined true Mexican crafts as a
mixture of European and indigenous traditions
, with objects produced for domestic consumption, mostly for the Mexican middle class.
Diego Rivera - Murals
Alebrije art from the state of Oaxaca
Arbol de la Vida
(The life tree),
which interprets the history and birth of Mexico
The indigenous culture has passed through various generations the tradition of
typical dancing and clothing.

Depending on the geographical area of the country, the dances represent various social events such as national holidays and civic festivities.

The dances are differentiated according to their place of origin, and in the case of Mexico, many of them have European and
indigenous reminiscences
.

Dances and Clothes
The mexican folk dances are
cheerful and colorful
, thanks to the costumes that dancers often use as well as the accompaniment of musicians who play the musical pieces.

Some typical dances are:
Jarabe Tapatio
- It is considered the national dance of mexico, born in Jalisco state.
Danza de los viejitos
- It is one of the funniest folk dances of Mexico. It was originated in the state of Michoacan, the dancers are disguised with wooden masks
Danza del venado
- It is entirely
pre-hispanic
. It belongs to the culture of the Yaqui indigenous of Sonora state. The symbolic context of the dance refers to the hunting of deer, an animal that is revered by the Yaquis.

Please press play to watch the following video
We can distinguish four types of holidays depending on their origin and nature:

The first are those holidays that are linked to the
ancient agricultural ritual calendar
, which were translated into certain festive cycles and Catholic festivities.

The second ones are those related to
saints celebrations
, in which a certain saint or virgin protects a village or district.

Then we have the celebrations related to
processional shrines
, which are product of the mix of catholic religion with the religion of ancient civilizations.

Lastly, there are the holidays linked to the family, in connection to certain
life cycle rituals
such as: baptism, communion, marriage and death.
The first group of festivities should be seen as part of a religious cycle with strong
pre-hispanic and indigenous roots.

The celebration of the
Día de Muertos
- (
Day of the dead)
, as it is popularly known, is practiced throughout Mexico. It involves both the
indigenous communities
and mestizo groups from urban and rural communities.

The celebration of All Saints and All Souls, has been mixed with the commemoration of Dia de Muertos, which has been celebrated since pre-Hispanic times. Ancient
indigenous groups
as Mexicas or Aztecs, Mixtecas, Texcocanos, Zapotecas, Tlaxcaltecas, Totonacas among other groups moved the veneration of their dead to the Christian calendar.
National pre-Hispanic Holidays
Reference:
www.cdi.gob.mx
Typical offering from Dia de Muertos
Is the time when the souls of dead relatives return home to live with their living families and to feed on the essence of the food that is offered in domestic altars.
Typical skull of Dia de Muertos
Downtown Mexico City offerings
Mexico´s Cultural Heritage
Indigenous culture and traditions
are important to understand what Mexico is today.

It is vital to preserve the traditions and cultural heritage of various indigenous groups, which will remember us about the
roots of the formation
of this great nation.

The only way to reach progress in the future, is looking back at the close relation that our indigenous groups had with
the Earth and Nature
.

That is why
indigenous languages
traditional mexican cuisine
handcrafts and folk art
dances and clothes
National pre-Hispanic Holidays
should be
saved
and form part of the time capsule of the world´s cultural heritage.

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