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Law, Society and Criminal Justice Group Project

Olevia Boykin

on 5 August 2013

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Transcript of Terrorism

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Preventing Terrorism: 3 Methods to Explore
U.S.A Patriot Act
Reacting to Terrorism
Defined: Anguish of body or mind, the infliction of intense pain to punish, coerce or afford sadistic pleasure.
Our Policy
What is Terrorism?
Preventative Policies
U.S.A. Patriot Act
Alert Systems
Engaging Communities
Reactive Policies
Methods of Interrogation
Police and Military Response
Our proposal

Defining Terrorism
Domestic Terrorism vs International Terrorism
Types of Terrorism
Incident vs Prevention (Terrorism)
What is Terrorism
Origins of Terrorism
Socioeconomic (Freytag)
Increased threat awareness
Public Reaction
Public Fear (Lerner)
Since 1920 there have been hundreds of attempted or completed terrorist
attacks in the US or against US Citizens abroad according to the FBI with
tens of thousands of Americans being killed (Counterterrorism).
"Today, our fellow citizens, our way of life, our very freedom came under
attack in a series of deliberate and deadly terrorist acts" (George)
Alert Systems
"If You See Something, Say Something"
Engaging Communities
Torture is a slippery slope - each act of torture makes it easier to accept the use of torture in the future
Torture is an ineffective interrogation tool
Torture damages the humanity of the torturers
Torture damages the institution that carries it out
Example: Obama's Executive Order
Reasons of Principle
Torture treats the victim as a means to an end and not an end in themselves
Torture is sometimes used to destroy the autonomy of the victim
Torture violates the rights and human dignity of the victim, including
Example: Bush Response Post 9/11
Effective Policies for
Controlling Terrorism

Post traumatic Stress Disorder
Increased Terrorism
False information
Since 9/11, two national warning systems designed to assist law enforcement agencies and first responders at city, county, state, and federal levels of government. The government is also utilizing web sites and social media to post critical information and instruct citizens in preparing for and responding to disasters and emergencies of all kinds. (Kemp 1)
Police and Military Response
Police in War
Police response
Homeland Security Advisory System
Military Response
National Terrorism Advisory System
Methods of Interrogation
President Bush signed Homeland Security Presidential Directive 3 in March 2002, creating the Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS).
Goals: improve coordination and communication among all levels of government and the public by alerting them of potential terrorist attacks.
Tailored to a different sector or interest—e.g., transportation, defense, agriculture, and weather.
Five color-coded threat conditions: Green: Low, Blue: Guarded, Yellow: Elevated, Orange: High, and Red: Severe. (Kemp 1)
Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism
The purpose of the USA PATRIOT Act is to deter and punish terrorist acts in the United States and around the world, to enhance law enforcement investigatory tools, and other purposes
According to the Department of Justice
The National Terrorism Advisory System (NTAS) replaced the color-coded HSAS in April 2011.
National, two-level alert system designates threats as imminent or elevated-based on what was expected to happen vs. what might happen.
Alerts are sent directly to law enforcement agencies or affected private sector areas or to the American people through official and media channels.
DHS encourages citizens to follow NTAS alerts for information about threats and to take an active role in security by reporting suspicious activity to local law enforcement authorities through the “If You See Something, Say Something” public awareness campaign.” (Kemp 2-3)
The nationwide "If You See Something, Say Something™" public awareness campaign is a simple and effective program to raise public awareness of indicators of terrorism and terrorism-related crime. It emphasizes the importance of reporting suspicious activity to the proper local law enforcement authorities.
Terrorism in the United States
Responses to Terrorism
What it does
Does it work?
“Since its enactment in October 2001, the Patriot Act has been vital to winning the War on Terror and protecting the American People.” GWB
John Snow: "...dramatically increased our ability to choke off terrorist monies."
In 2004, Justice Department terrorism investigations have resulted in charges against 310 people and have yielded 179 convictions or guilty pleas. The report says the Patriot Act was central to those cases.
According to an article by Bloch-Elkon in 2007, American’s think the Patriot Act is a good thing
"These acts of mass murder were intended to frighten our nation into chaos and retreat" (George)
"Tonight I ask for your prayers for all those who grieve, for the children whose worlds have been shattered, for all whose sense of safety and security has been threatened." (George)
"Our first priority is to get help to those who have been injured and to take every precaution to protect our citizens at home and around the world from further attacks...." (George)
Comparative advantage versus military in war
National security agencies can no longer work alone when it comes to combating terrorism- they must work together with other public and private agencies, most importantly the police.
Military Force can be a valuable part of the U.S. strategy to contain terrorism, however nothing else has been more controversial than military force.
Examples: Libya 1986
Iraq 1993
A study has shown that over 38 years several approaches have been much more effective than military responses at eliminating future attacks.
Let's ensure Boston never happens again.
“Empowering Local Partners to Prevent Violent Extremism in the United States”
Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) - Three models that can be used counter radical acts:

Comprehensive Gang Model
Building Communities of Trust Initiative
Safe Schools/Healthy Students Initiative

Strategic Implementation Plan (SIP) Objectives
"Enhancing federal engagement with and support to local communities that may be targeted by violent extremists."
"Building government and law enforcement expertise for preventing violent extremism."
"Countering violent extremist propaganda while promoting our ideals."
To Conclude
Bloch-Elkon, Yaeli. "Trends: Preventing Terrorism After The 9/11 Attacks." Public Opinion Quarterly 71.1 (2007): 142-63. JSTOR. Web.
Clark, Killian. "The Effects of Torture on Terrorism." Harvard International Review. 26 Apr. 2006. Web.
Clark, Ronald V., and Graeme Newman. "Police and the Prevention of Terrorism." Policing 1.1 (2007): 9-20. Print.
“Counterterrorism 2013 Calendar.” NCTC.gov. National Counterterrorism Center. n.d. Web. 3 April 2013.
"The Drop Off - If You See Something, Say Something PSA - 30 Second." YouTube. YouTube, 15 Aug. 2011. Web. 21 Apr. 2013.
Freytag, Andreas, et al. "The origins of terrorism: Cross-country estimates of socio-economic determinants of terrorism" European Journal
of Political Economy. 27.1 (2011): S5-S16. Web. 3 April 2013. <http://www.sciencedirect.com.proxy.library.nd.edu/science/article/pii/S0176268011000723>."George W. Bush The Night of 9-11-01". YouTube.com. 12 September 2001. 911archives. 3 April 2013 <
Henderson, Nathan C. "The Patriot Act's Impact on the Government's Ability to Conduct Electronic Surveillance of Ongoing Domestic
Communications." Duke Law Journal 52.1 (2002): 179-209. JSTOR. Web.
"Homeland Security." "If You See Something, Say Something" Campaign. Web.
"Homeland Security." National Terrorism Advisory System. Web. "Homeland Security." Preventing Terrorism Results. Web. H.R. 107-56,
107 Cong., United States Government 271 (2001) (enacted). Print.
Huddy, Leonie, et al. "Threat, Anxiety, and Support of Antiterrorism Policies." American Journal of Political Science 49.3 (2005): 593-608.
Web. 3 April 2013 <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1540-5907.2005.00144.x/full>.
Kemp, Roger L. "Homeland Security In America: Past, Present, And Future." Fire Engineering 165.9 (2012): 91-94. Academic Search
Premier. Web.
Lerner, Jennifer, et al. "Effects of Fear and Anger on Perceived Risks of Terrorism." 2003.Web. April 3, 2013
O'Hanlon, Michael. "A Broad Take on America’s Current Homeland Security." Brookings Institution. 2007. Web.
PAI Administrator. "USA PATRIOT ACT: Effective. Preventive. Constitutional." Pax Americana Institute RSS. 25 Feb. 2007. Web. 21 Apr.
Reporting., Charlie Savage; Ashley Parker Contributed. "Election Will Decide Future of Interrogation Methods for Terrorism Suspects." The
New York Times. The New York Times, 28 Sept. 2012. Web. “Terrorism 2002-2005.” FBI.gov. Federal Bureau of Investigation. n.d. Web. 3 April 2013. <http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/terrorism-2002-2005>.
Silk, Dan. "Community Policing To Prevent Violent Extremism." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 81.10 (2012): 1-6. Academic Search
Premier. Web.
"Torture: Why Is Torture Wrong." BBC News. BBC-Ethics. Web.
United States. U.S. Department of Justice. Report from the Field: The USA PATRIOT Act at Work. U.S. Department of Justice, 2004. July.
U.S. Department of Justice. Web.
"USA PATRIOT Act." USA Patriot Act. Financial Crimes Enforcement Network: U.S. Department of Treasury. Web. 21 Apr. 2013.
"What Is the USA Patriot Act." What Is the USA Patriot Act. U.S. Department of Justice. Web.
Enhanced the Federal Governments Capacity to Share Intelligence
Strengthened the Criminal Laws Against Terrorism
Removed Obstacles to investigating terrorism
Updated the law to reflect new technology
Keep in
Terrorism: An action intended to intimidate or coerce for political or social objectives
Inextricable need for balance: Civil Liberties v Protection
Torture: ehhh maybe not.
If you see something, say something: Good theory, less so in practice
Enhance recognizability of NTAS: Bring the Colors Back
Continue with the effectiveness of the Patriot Act in enhancing communications between agencies.
Full transcript