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James I - The Glorious Revolution
Transcript of James I - The Glorious Revolution
restored the use of the Book of Common Prayer to the church service that had been slightly revised in order to make it more acceptable to the Catholics. The Thirty-nine Articles
a new confession of faith that defined theological issues midway between Lutheranism and Calvinism showing Elizabeth’s protestant doctrine that was rather moderate. The new religious policy succeeded in smothering religious differences in England during the second-half of the 16th century. One of Elizabeth’s greatest challenges came from her cousin, Mary Queen of Scots, who was Catholic and next in line to the English throne.
Though she was strongly Catholic, Elizabeth was always fond of Mary as she was her nearest kinswoman. In 1568, Mary was forced to flee for her life due to a scandal that said she murdered her husband. She fled for sanctuary in England, leaving her infant son, James, behind. Once she was in England, she made it clear that she was very interested in obtaining the English throne.
She attempted to rally up the Catholics in her favor and was even involved in a failed plot to assassinate Elizabeth. With all evidence against her cousin, Elizabeth had no choice but to have her tried and sentenced to death. She did give orders, however, that Mary was not to be put to death until she gave the word. Her counsel did not listen to her and had Mary publicly beheaded. Mary became viewed both as a martyr and as a member of the royal family who was put to death as if she were a common criminal. Another threat to her power were the Puritans. The term was first used in 1564 to refer to Protestants within the Anglican Church who, inspired by Calvinist theology, wanted to remove any trace of Catholicism from the Church of England. Elizabeth managed to keep them in check during her reign. The Rise and Reign of James I James was the only son of Mary Queen of Scots and became king at 13 months of age. He was subject to regular beatings by his tutors but also obtained a lifelong passion for literature and learning. In 1597, James wrote The True Law of Free Monarchies, in which established the doctrine of the Divine Right of Kings and the royal prerogative. After Elizabeth died, the Stuart line of rulers came to the throne and King James VI of Scotland became James I of England. He was the first ruler of all Britain,
uniting both Scotland and England. His goal was to be “rex pacificus” (the peacemaker king). In November, 1605, James received a tip-off letter warning him of a plot to kill him. The night before parliament was to convene, the place was searched and a man named Guy Fawkes was found guarding 35 barrels of gun powder. Had he succeeded, the bombing would have wiped out most of the royal family as well as the entire political establishment. « Remember, remember the Fifth of November,
The Gunpowder Treason and Plot,
I know of no reason
Why Gunpowder Treason
Should ever be forgot.
Guy Fawkes, Guy Fawkes, t'was his intent
To blow up King and Parli'ment.
Three-score barrels of powder below
To prove old England's overthrow;
By God's providence he was catch'd
With a dark lantern and burning match.
Holloa boys, holloa boys, let the bells ring.
Holloa boys, holloa boys, God save the King! »« Conflict with the Protestants James was not supportive of Calvinistic theology. He hated the Geneva version of the Bible. So he had the King James Version of the Bible translated. James asked Parliament to raise taxes. They denied his request because they did not want to fund his extravagant lifestyle. This initial conflict between king and parliament would come to a head during the reign of Charles’ son. Charles I When James died, his son Charles came to the throne in 1626. Charles wanted to rule as much as possible without Parliament. The biggest problem is he lacked the power to tax his subjects at will due to a document signed in 1628 known as the Petition of Right. From 1629 to 1640 he refused to call Parliament, which forced him to find alternative ways to collect taxes. His team of lawyers found that he legally had the authority to transfer “ship money,” which was a levy on coastal towns to pay for defense. This made the people very angry. Charles’ marriage to Henrietta Maria, the Catholic sister of King Louis XIII of France, aroused suspicions about his religious beliefs. Charles and William Laud, the archbishop of Canterbury, attempted to introduce more ritual into the Anglican Church. When they attempted to impose the Anglican Book of Common Prayer on the Scottish Presbyterian Church, the Scots rose up in rebellion against the king. Charles was forced to call Parliament into session for the first time in eleven years. The Long Parliament lasted off and on from 1640 to 1660.
Limitations on royal authority such as the abolition of taxes the king had collected.
Triennial Act, Parliament must meet at least once every three years, with or without the kings consent. By the end of 1641, half of parliament had been satisfied with the revisions while the other half still wanted more. Charles tried to take advantage of the split by arresting five leading members for high treason. He stormed into Parliament and sat himself in the speaker chair. To his surprise, they had anticipated him and the five escaped. Charles’ image was crushed as his attempt made him seem like a tyrant while his lack of success made him seem like a failure. Thomas Hobbes
1588-1679 An English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy called Leviathan, which established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory. He was born prematurely in Wiltshire, England, on 5 April 1588 when his mother heard of the coming of the Spanish Armada. He studied classics at Oxford University in England. Hobbes traveled around Europe several times to study different forms of government. He was interested in why people allowed themselves to be ruled and what he believed would be the best form of government for England. Hobbes on Human Nature Hobbes thought humans were selfish creatures who would do anything to advance themselves. Left to themselves, people would act on their evil impulses. Therefore, people should not be trusted to make decisions on their own. Hobbes felt that nations, like people, were selfishly motivated and each country was in a constant battle for power and wealth. Hobbes on Government Governments were created, according to Hobbes, to protect people from their own selfishness and evil. The best government was one that had the power of a leviathan, or sea monster. Because people are only interested in promoting their own self-interests, Hobbes believed democracy, which allows citizens to vote for government leaders, would never work. "All mankind [is in] a perpetual and restless desire for power... that [stops] only in death." Therefore, giving power to the individual creates a dangerous situation that will inevitably start a "war of every man against every man" and make life "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." Though he distrusted democracy, Hobbes believed that a group of representatives that presents the problems of the common person could, hopefully, prevent a king from being cruel and unfair. Hobbes invented the phrase "voice of the people," which meant that one person could be chosen to represent a group with similar views. However, this "voice" was merely heard and not necessarily heeded. The final decisions must always lay in the hands of the king. Hobbes invites the reader to consider what life would be like in “the state of nature,” or, a state without government or institution. Leviathan Perhaps in this state people have bare feet and are their own judge and jury whenever disputes arise. There is only private judgment and no higher authority to arbitrate disputes and enforce decisions. While John Locke, insisted that this state of nature was to be preferred to subjection to the arbitrary power of an absolute sovereign, Hobbes disagreed. He believed that this state would make impossible all of the basic security upon which comfortable, sociable, civilized life depends. In the State of Nature there would be “no place for industry, because the fruit thereof is uncertain; and consequently no culture of the earth; no navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by Sea; no commodious Building; no Instruments of moving and removing such things as require much force; no Knowledge of the face of the Earth; no account of Time; no Arts; no Letters; and which is worst of all, continuall feare, and danger of violent death; And the life of man, solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short.” The only way to avoid this State of Nature is by submitting to some mutually recognized public authority, for “so long as man is in the condition of mere nature, (which is a condition of war,) as private appetite is the measure of good and evill.” The State of Nature is a State of War Civil War in England 1642-1646 Parliament proved victorious in the first phase of the war due to the New Model Army, which was composed primarily of more extreme Puritans known as the Independents who believed they were doing battle for the Lord. 1646 Parliament ended the first phase of the civil war with the capture of King Charles I. 1648 Charles took advantage of the division and fled to seek help from the Scots. Enraged by the king's treachery, the army engaged in a second civil war. The war ended with the capture of the King. 1649 Charles was beheaded on January 30. The Revolution had triumphed, and the monarchy in England had been destroyed....at least for now. After the death of the king, Parliament established the monarchy and the House of Lords and proclaimed England a commonwealth. 1649-1653 Oliver Cromwell Group Activity This was not an easy period for Cromwell.... He had to crush the Catholic uprising in Ireland The Levellers
freedom of speech
democratic republic in which all male house-holders over the age of 21 could vote. He also struggled with Parliament and eventually dismissed them due to his frustration with them. John Locke In the "Essay Concerning Human Understanding" Locke examines the nature of the human mind and the process by which it knows the world. Locke believed that the mind is born blank, a tabula rasa upon which the world describes itself through the experience of the five senses. Contradicting Thomas Hobbes, Locke believed that the original state of nature was happy and characterized by reason and tolerance. In that state all people were equal and independent, and none had a right to harm another's “life, health, liberty, or possessions.” The state was formed by social contract because in the state of nature each was his own judge, and there was no protection against those who lived outside the law of nature. The state should be guided by natural law. John Locke's theory was called the Social Contract. Whereby a person agrees to give up some of their rights for the right and protection of the entire community by the government. "The end of law is, not to abolish or restrain, but to preserve and enlarge freedom." "Man was born free, and everywhere he is in chains" The Cromwell found it difficult to work with Parliament and finally dispersed it by force. Cromwell thus destroyed both King and Parliament. The army drew up "The Instrument of Government," England's first and only written constitution.
Executive power was vested in the Lord Protector (Cromwell's position) and legislative power in Parliament. But the system failed to work. Cromwell found it difficult to work with Parliament, especially when its members debated his authority and advocated once again the creation of a Presbyterian Church. In 1655, Cromwell dissolved Parliament again and divided the country into eleven regions, each ruled by a major general who served as a military governor. In the end, Cromwell had resorted to even more arbitrary policies than those of Charles I. Cromwell died in 1658. Charles II Shortly after Cromwell's death, the Army reestablished the monarchy in the person of Charles II, the eldest son of Charles I. After 11 years of exile, Charles II (1660-1685) returned to England. However, Parliament kept much of the power it had won through the revolution After the restoration of the monarchy, a new Parliament (the Cavalier Parliament) met in 1661 and restored the Anglican Church as the official Church of England. In addition, laws were passed to force everyone to conform to the Anglican Church. Charles, however, was sympathetic to Catholicism. Even more so was his brother, James. In 1672 Charles issued the Declaration of Indulgence. Parliament would have none of it and made the king suspend the declaration. Propelled by a strong anti-Catholic sentiment, Parliament then passed the Test Act of 1673, specifying that only Anglicans could hold military and civil offices. To put to death these efforts, Charles dismissed Parliament in 1681. When he died in 1685, James to the throne. James II The accession of James II in 1685 made religion once more a primary cause of conflict between king and Parliament. In 1687, he issued a new Declaration of Indulgence, which suspended all laws barring Catholics and extreme protestants from office. Parliament knew that he was an old man and that his successors were his protestant daughters, Mary and Anne, born to this first wife, and a son born to his Catholic second wife, which caused many to fear a return to a strongly Catholic hereditary Monarchy. The Glorious Revolution A group of 7 prominent English noblemen invited William of Orange, husband of James' daughter Mary, to invade England. With almost no bloodshed, England had embarked on a “Glorious Revolution” over who would be that monarch. The Revolution Settlement confirmed William and Mary as monarchs. In January 1689, William and Mary accepted the throne along with the provisions of the Bill of Rights in 1698. The bill of rights affirmed Parliament's right to make laws and levy taxes. Both elections and debates of Parliament had to be free, meaning the king could not interfere. The rights of citizens to petition the sovereign, keep arms, have a jury trial, and not be subject to excessive bail were also confirmed. The Bill of Rights helped fashion a system of government based on the rule of law and freely elected Parliament, thus laying the foundation of constitutional monarchy. The Bill of rights did not settle the religious questions that had played such a large role in England's troubles in the seventeenth century. The toleration Act of 1689 granted Puritan Dissenters the right of free public worship (Catholics were still excluded), although they did not yet have full civil and political equality since the Test Act was not repealed. Although the Toleration Act did not mean complete religious freedom and equality, it marked a departure in English history: few people would ever again be persecuted for religious reasons. “I tell you….you have no other way to deal with these men but to break them or they will break you;…and make void all that work that with so many years’ industry, toil and pains, you have done…I tell you again, you are necessitated to break them.” Two political groupings then arose: the Whigs (who wanted to establish a clearly Protestant king) with the Tories (who believed Parliament should not tamper with the law of succession to the throne.