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US History Timeline
Transcript of US History Timeline
By: Josiah Thompson
The shaping/forming of the place that we all know as the United States of America
1941- USA enters WW2 because of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
1946- WW2 ends with Hitler's suicide
1982- USSR invades Afghanistan. We hire Al Qaeda.
c/1988- The USSR and USA withdraw from Afghanistan. Al Qaeda gains power, but they don't want the USA to withdraw.
1993- Al Qaeda attempts 9/11 and fails.
2001- 9/11 happens, other targets: The Pentagon, and possibly the White House (It was prevented, but there was great sacrifice). We then declare war on Terrorism.
The effects of 9/11
2003- Our forces attack Al Qaeda in Iraq
May 2011- USA locates and kills Osama Bin Laden in Pakistan
December 2011- Our forces withdraw from Iraq
December 2014- Our forces scheduled to leave Afghanistan
The Paleo-Indians migrate across the land bridge
and than separated to become the first people in North America. They then settle and create great civilizations
Even though its pretty self explanatory. This was the end of the Ice Age, the ice receded, and it got warmer.
The Founding Fathers wrote a letter declaring their Independence
Yes, they signed it at the bottom
c/ 8987 BC- The Clovis People
They were hunters, and at about the same time Mammoths became extinct.
c/1500 BC- The Olmec
Originating in Mesoamerica, they were the Mother-Culture of Mesoamerica, they introduced skills that would influence the rest of Mesoamerica. They built religious centers made from the earth. They may have been the first to develop a calender system.
The Mayans were also influenced by the Olmec people in many ways, they lived in the tropical rainforest of Guatemala. Their calender was probably one of the most accurate in the world. They also developed a game, played with a ball.
c/900 AD- The Maya
In the valley of Mexico the Aztec were finished with their city- "Teotihuacan" - where many people were residing, the different social classes lived in places. One temple was dedicated to just one god, "Quetzalcoatl". The people of Teotihuacan kept their gods happy.
c/300 AD- The Aztec
More about the Aztecs- c/1200 BC
The Aztec invaded a small island that would soon become their great city known as "Tenochtitlan" and began conquering the neighbors, making them give offerings to the gods. This made way for them taking over most of central Mexico. About 450 years later there was a 4 year drought and famine. Which meant loss of power, they resulted in a mass of sacrifices
c/500 BC- 700 AD -The Hopewell
The Hopewell culture lasted from 500 BC to 700 AD, like the Mayans they disappeared with no trace. Their religion was based on lots of death rituals. The leaders were buried on huge mounds. They did a lot of things like the Egyptians.
We all know about this guy, he came to America. Thought he discovered it first, found the Native Americans....
"Random drawing of a boat that I found"
The Eskimos were made up of 2 main tribes, the "Inupiat" and the "Yupik". They lived in the-well... you guessed it- Tundra, where there is sometimes no sun for weeks and weeks at a time. There are no trees. Summer only thawed the ice about a foot or so.
The Indians of the Southwest
At about the same time as the Eskimos, the Native Americans in the southwest had to learn to farm, it happened at Rio Grande. They planted corn, beans, raised cotton, as well as hunted animals. They did lots of religious ceremonies based off whats happening.
c/1513 AD- The Iroquois
There once was a time when there was too much war. The northern Iroquois, the Cyuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, and Seneca - joined together and made peace, "The Great Law of Peace" it was a code of justice. Very similar to the Constitution.
c/3100 BC- To the North
To the north of a kingdom called "Nubia" their is a place known as Egypt. We all know about Egypt, you know... Pharaohs are the kings, invented a system of writing and record keeping, first to organize a whole country under one government.
The entire population of Africa was about 6.5 million. About 1/2 of them were part of Egypt, 2000 years later, the total population was about 33 million, but 70% lived in other places that weren't the Sahara Desert
c/1000 BC- To the South
Ghana began to rise at about this period in time, the kingdom dominated most of West Africa, trade was the main reason for this. They had the monopoly on salt-gold trade, which meant higher taxes.
c/300 AD- Ghana
c/600 AD- Islam Spreads
During Ghana's greatness, the religion was taking Africa by storm. Founded by Muhammad in Arabia. It was brought by the traders from Arabia, it stormed Africa heading west and to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean. Ghana welcomed them and the rest of Ghana did, too. I must say they were slow to accept it.
(At about the same time) Slavery spreads
With the spreading of Islam, the slave trade got more and more popular and common. They had their own rights, along with freedom coming along to the children. They were sold and taken to Arabia, Persia, and other Muslim lands.
1076 AD -Ghana's Demise
Ghana brought law and order to Africa, but success bought Ghana both friends and enemies. At this year a army of Muslims from NW Africa invaded Kumbi, resulting in loss of power, the hold on the lands loosened. People took advantage and built up their own small little kingdoms. By c/1200's, Ghana existed no more.
Back in the 600s, the Mandika built a small state known as "Mali". 600 years later, the leader of Mali defeated Ghana and made Mali an empire. In 1312 Mali's most famous ruler, Mansa Musa made Mali one of the most powerful empires of their time. When he died in 1337, Mali was more powerful than it was before he started, but it began to decline after he died.
It became divided and the borders opened up, later in the 1400's the Songhai owned most of Mali. It then became 100% Songhai.
c/1300 AD- Mandinka
c/1400 AD- Portuguese
Europe set out to explore Asia, Africa and the Americas. Looking for gold and ways to spread Christianity, they set up trading posts along the way, Portugal was the first country to embark on this voyage. They traded with Mali and Timbuktu
c/1300 AD- Marco Polo
Earlier in time, Feudalism began, it was a social, political, and economic way to survive. As trade increased in Europe, Marco Polo began to travel into great foreign lands. Europe traded with many different countries, including China, the Middle east and many other places from the east.
With so much trade going on, it weakened the feudal system, causing much chaos. Resulting with the Renaissance. Where things got really pretty and nice.
c/1400 AD- The Renaissance
The Italians were in the Muslim cities for a while, creating great conections in terms of trade. Europe got jealous of the Italians and their huge profits.
c/1400 AD- Trade Rivals
c/1400 AD- Henry the Navigator
The coastline of Portugal interested Prince Henry, he began sending ships down to Africa. He sponsored them, people started calling him Henry the Navigator. He started the trade with West Africa.
Slaves have been everywhere and been there almost forever, it changed. With more demand, more slaves where needed. They were also treated badly, introducing racism.
c/1440 AD- Slave Changes
c/1480 AD- Water Route to Asia
The Portuguese were the first to sail across the equator, sail to the tip of Africa. Then, they were the first to find an all-water route to Asia.
c/1500 AD- The Spark
Christopher Columbus arrived on the Portuguese coastline, following the trail to Africa. He formed the life passion that would guide him throughout life; exploration, why not sail "west" around the world to find the Indies, or Asia? (South east)
c/1500 AD- Help from Spain
Columbus went to Spain to get help from the king and queen. The timing was bad, so he went to France, but the spanish king and queen wanted him back 6 years later.
1492 AD- Columbus Sailed the Ocean Blue
Conditions were rough on the boat. For fear of the sailors mental health, Columbus had to keep false records of the distance traveled. He discovered land and with it kind people. He searched onward, looking for Japan.
c/1500 AD- Death
Columbus' journey across the Atlantic replaced the Mediterranean sea for trade. Columbus did things that angered the queen of Spain, they took away some of his power, and then they stopped supporting him at all.
Later in 1506 Columbus died.
c/1518 AD- Magellan
The king of Spain was introduced to one Ferdinand Magellan, a portuguese navigator who'd sailed with Portugal to the Spice Islands. He made a plan to sail to the Indies, the king was impressed. He sponsored Magellan. Magellan found the Pacific Ocean.
c/1520 AD- Magellan Dies
Magellan and his crew explored the vast Pacific Ocean, finding an island. He converted a whole village to Catholicism, he died in a war on the island. Yet the crew sailed on without him.
c/1520 AD- Journey well spent
After the whole island adventure, Magellan's crew reached the Spice Islands. They received a heroes greeting in Spain,1522. Three years after they set out.
c/1500 AD- Food, Glorious Food!
There was a thing back in Columbus's time, called the "Colombian Exchange". It is when the Old and New worlds met with an exchange of food
c/1500 Ad- Columbus's 2nd Voyage
Columbus was given a mission, find new lands along with new people. He could rule over any land he found, and the King and Queen of Spain said that he should be kind to the Natives that he found. But instead he enslaved and abused them.
When the Spanish crown found out about Columbus' wrongdoings, they took him away from power. The crown actually encouraged the abuse after they let go of Columbus. The Natives were enslaved for 15 years. By then most of them died
c/1500 AD- Abuse continues
Sugar cane was probably the most valuable plant that Columbus brought back from his ventures to the Caribbean. It was needed all over Europe. They regarded America as a great place to make money.
c/1500 AD- Sugar Cane Wealth
c/1510 AD- Gold Mining
In 1508, Spanish sailors came looking for Gold in Puerto Rico. The Indians were forced to mine lots of gold, grow food, and carry the Spaniard´s things. Same thing happened in 1509 except on Jamaica.
c/1550 AD- Slavery in America
The Indians were dying off in the Caribbean, the Spanish crown and Portugal got Slaves from all over the world for their American Colonies, the slaves included Africans, Asians, and Filipinos.
There were a few notable advantages of African Slaves. They had farming knowledge, used to the working conditions, knew how to care for animals, and they had strong roots in the artistic aspects of their culture .
c/1550 AD- Advantages of Africans
Hernan Cortes was one of the ringleaders in the invasion of Mexico. Killing off the Maya army. Then the Aztecs, with the help of a slave girl.
c/1510 AD- Invading Mexico
An ancient Aztec legend said that a white bearded man (Cortes) would return to rule over Mexico under one of their god´s names. All the signs were correct, so the Aztec ruler tried many things to keep him away.
c/1515 AD- A God?
The conquistador Juan Ponce de Leon was searching the the Fountain of Youth, which lead to the discovery of Florida. He later learned that there was gold in Mexico, he returned to Florida, but died via an arrow.
c/1513 AD- Exploration of the Gulf
c/1530 AD- Narvaez's Travels
The next expedition was led by Panfilo de Narvaez, he fought alongside Cortes. He set out in 1527 for Rio Grande, but because of the storms he ended up at Tampa Bay, Florida. He tried so many times to find gold, but all were in vain.
c/1540 AD- The Goose Chase
During the winter of 1540, Coronado spent time with "Turk" a plains indian who told then about a gold invested city called "Quivira". He led them to the great plains, when they arrived at the designated point, it turned out to be a wild goose hunt.
Hernando de Soto had no better luck than Coronado, he landed at Tampa Bay, with the same intentions: gold. He wandered around for 3 years with no luck, he razed all the indian settlements. They sent him away on a goose chase.
c/1540 AD- De Soto
Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo set sail from Navidad, Mexico, sailing north along California's coast. He camped on an island, there he died, but he sailed as far north as Oregon.
c/1540 AD- Exploring the Coast
c/1575 AD- Onate's Journey
Juan de Onate was like Coronado, but he stayed to the east, going to the ford on Rio Grande known as El Paso del Norte. He founded a town known as Santa Fe, named in 1609.
Within a few days of the conquest of Mexico, the spanish set up multiple outposts reaching out from the capitol. In the capitol (Mexico City) there was a plaza, the center of activity. There were many fiestas.
c/1500 AD- Santa Fe
The spanish divided the land into multiple estates. They stopped enslaving the indians, creating a new system. The had a new system called "the Hacienda system", where the indians could leave or work the land.
c/1600 AD- Dividing Land
In almost every society there were social classes, with Spain, it was the most important jobs and Church leaders, then the "Creoles", and than the Mestizos, or the indians. The bottommost class were the slaves, some of the indians and all the African slaves.
c/1600 AD- Social Classes
c/1680 AD- Pueblo Indians Rebel
Many friar missionaries were sent to California to convert the indians, but they were abused. The Pueblo Indians rebelled, chasing the Spaniards to El Paso, which is in Texas.
Even though the Pueblo Indians took over Santa Fe, the Apache attacks drove them out. Later in 1592 AD the Spanish took back Santa Fe.
c/1590 AD- Retaking Santa Fe
c/1600 AD- Trade Industry
With the American wealth was being shipped over to Spain, there was a lot of trading going on over in New Spain. (Central Mexico) The places were supporting each other, called "mercantilism". Spain grew really rich, maybe even too rich.
c/1500 - English Explorers
John Cabot was the Columbus of England, he
set out and reached somewhere near Newfoundland, Canada. He met no one there, even though he saw signs of Indians.
Giovanni da Verrazano was the first person to seek out a Northwest passage, he failed. At least Giovanni was the first to see the New York Bay.
1524 - French Explorers
Jacques Cartier explored the gulf of St. Lawrence, kidnapped 2 locals, and returned to France. A year later, the Indians he kidnapped helped him to the St. Lawrence river.
1534 - Jacques Cartier
This French captain explored more of the St. Lawrence River. In 1608 he founded a fur trading post near the River.
c/1600 - Samuel de Champlain
Henry Hudson also set out to find a Northwest Passage. The Half Moon's destination was China, but Hudson ended up exploring the Hudson River, it led him to Albany, New York.
1609 - Hudson
Henry Hudson - once again - made another journey to North America. He was led to the Hudson Bay. He sailed every passage he could find, trying to get to Asia. His crew rebelled, and Hudson was never heard of again.
1610 - To Canada!
Johann Tetzel was a monk selling forgiveness for the buyers' sins. Martin Luther, a priest, believed that the Church was corrupt. This revolution and idea of Luther almost tore Europe apart and stumbled into the Americas.
1517 - Corruption in Europe
The Catholics (Tetzel) were trying to maintain this corruption, but the rebels (Luther) became the Protestants. Protestantism flooded North Europe. Religious wars were starting in Holland, France, Germany, and even overseas.
1517 - Split Up
The Catholic and Protestant uneasiness expanded in France. More and more people became Protestant, or Huguenots. Gaspard de Coligny was one of them, he created a colony in the Americas for his fellow Huguenots.
c/1520 - Tension
The Huguenots were happy with their new home; a place were they were free to do their religion.
c/1520 - The Colony
1564 - French Colonies
French colonists - made up of Huguenots and noblemen - established Fort Caroline near Jacksonville, Florida. They took their Indian help for granted and lived in dire conditions
A warship captained by Pedro Menendez de Aviles arrived at Fort Caroline. The colonists were scared, for Pedro's mission was to behead all Protestants. There was a chase that took a while, but alas the Spaniard gave up.
1565 - Spanish Chase
After giving up on the chase Pedro built a fort at St. Augustine. A storm messed up the opportunity for the French to get back at Menendez. After the storm was over, Menendez destroyed Fort Caroline, killing all but women, children and a few carpenters,
1565 - The Aftermath
1547 - Elizabeth's Reign
King Henry sent England on a religious path to "The Church of England". When he died, the Spanish seized their opportunity to convert England back to Catholicism.
Queen Elizabeth ruled England and kept the people on their protestant ways, even though the Spanish were urging the conversion. Elizabeth hoped to set up a union between both countries.
1547 - Queen of England
Whilst England was ruled by Elizabeth, they began to develop their armada's power. John Cabot found a fishing area, which increased the developmental process. It made fast sea vessels along with sailors.
c/1547 - Sea Power
The ships were often used for raiding the big and slow Spanish galleons, the raiders were known as "Sea Dogs". Queen Elizabeth would always look the other way, never tax the people, and take some of the treasure.
c/1547 - Sea Dogs
Sir Francis Drake of England was a famous sea dog, he had a hatred for Spain. He made many feats; such as being the first englishman to circle the world in c/1578.
c/1565 - Francis Drake
1588 - The "Invincible Armada"
King Philip of Spain wanted to teach England a lesson, via "The Invisible Armada". It was made up of 130 galleons, carried soldiers, priests and sailors. But they were easily defeated by the smaller, faster, lightly gunned English fleet.
The Spanish's defeat was a serious blow to the Spanish Pride. It left the rest of the world thinking that Spain's power wasn't all that great.
1588 - Revolution
1585 - Roanoke Colony
Sir Walter Raleigh was the first englishman to establish a colony on North America. It was Roanoke, but it completely disappeared when the mayor took a vacation. All was untouched but a signpost that held a mysterious message: CROATOAN.
c/1606 - Jamestown Settlement
John Smith went to North America and established Jamestown; Jamestown was located in Virginia. Life there was hard from the very beginning. Many bad things happened, such as 2/3 of the settlers dying from starvation, for the food supply was growing scarce.
1607 - John Smith's Work
Jamestown would be dead if it hadn't been for John Smith; he traded with the deadly Powhatan Indians, made a wall around the city, and made new rules. "He that will not work neither shall eat," That was the rule; Smith's success led to 800 new settlers.
c/1607 - Serious Division
John Smith had to leave Jamestown
because of a injury, and so winter came; the Indians stopped trading and 60 out of the 838 settlers arose from the aftermath.
1610 - Growth of Jamestown
Roanoke had fallen from lack of overseas supplies. However Jamestown had lots of support from England. One of the settlers was John Rolfe, he married Pocahontas; Rolfe's greatest contribution to Jamestown was tobacco, it was very popular in England.
c/1620 - More and More
Jamestown needed more workers for the tobacco fields, they grew rich from luring colonists and others to grow tobacco. There was never enough people to make tobacco.
1620 - The Journey
After a terrible experience in Europe, like being kicked out of England or unemployment in Holland; the Separatist Pilgrims of Plymouth were happy to board the Mayflower on their way to Plymouth. It was a lot like Jamestown, rough start, lots of hardships.
1621 - A Feast
One day at Plymouth, a Indian announced himself as "Samoset" and showed them to Squanto, the last remaining Patuxet Indian; he wanted to help all Englishmen, and so he did. Which led to the first Thanksgiving.
1630 - Major Migration
In England there were restless people who wanted nothing to do with the Church of England.; Puritans moved over from England to the Americas. This was called "The Great Migration."
c/1630 - Great Migration
The Puritan population from England headed for the Caribbean Sea, it was no longer under the Spanish Power; more and more countries were settling on the islands.
c/1630 - Settlement
40,000 Puritans settled in the Caribbean, they started numerous plantations. 20,000 more Puritans went to New England. Among them was John Winthrop, a Puritan; the first governor of Massachusetts. In 1630 11 ships from
England came and did more than double the New England population.
c/1630 - A Set Course
John Winthrop ended up being the governor for the next 19 years, and in that time he set up Massachusetts Bay Colony. It would be a commonwealth, where everyone worked together for everyone. All the Colonists went to the same church; the Puritan Church.
c/1630 - Laws and Regulations of Church
At the Puritan Churches, it was a lot more strict. It was cold, uncomfortable, and silent. The "New England Way" was drilled into everyone's head, it was the Puritan way.
1636 - Education
The Puritans had strict education rules, like read the Bible. The Ministers, or leaders of the Church, had to be well educated. So Harvard College was founded.
c/1636 - Split Up
In order to spread the Puritan beliefs, more and more Puritan Colonies were founded. Some were even independent of Massachusetts. Thomas Hooker was one of the independents; he set up a colony in Connecticut. There the first laws and constitution of the American Colonies were made.
c/1636 - Dissenters Arise
The Puritans didn't like freedom of religion. All the rebels were called "dissenters." The first notable one was Roger Williams, - a minister from Salem - he ran away and founded a colony in Rhode Island with a group of followers.
c/1636 - The Paths of Dissenters
Another dissenter was Anne Hutchinson. She had 16 kids and ran from the court over to Rhode "Rouge" Island
c/1640 - More Dissenters
People - called Quakers - rose and challenged the Puritan way. They said things that were preposterous to the Puritans and English. For that they were persecuted, but that didn't stop them. Even with the King's order. The commonwealth lasted for about 60 years.
1961 - End of the Commonwealth
The English set a new charter for Massachusetts. The governor was no longer selected by the Church, but the Crown. So Massachusetts had to live with the dissenters.
c/1622 - The Trade
First contact between the Europeans and the Indians was just for helping each other.
Europeans | Indians
c/1622 - Disagreements
The Europeans and the Indians defined "Land Ownership" differently. Europeans could do what ever they wanted to the land, but the Indians thought different. This resulted in Frontier Warfare. The Indians would continue to defend their land just as the Europeans would grow more relentless in seizing and colonizing North America.
c/1632 - Advance in Virginia
After 25 years of hard work, Virginia's population reached 2,500 people, tobacco sales were soaring, and the people mastered living on the Tidewater.
1634 - The Neighbor
With the success of Virginia, a pattern was set out for the neighbor; Maryland, established in 1634 as a refuge for English Catholics. Population was small, so they had to promise tolerance for Protestants, and sure enough, many Puritans came to Maryland during The Great Migration.
c/1635 - New Netherland
Founded by the Dutch West India Company, this place had made its money from the fur trade. In order to make it a "proper" colony; farming was encouraged by the Company.
They had many ways of attracting colonists, like land deeds along the nearby Hudson River. Those "Patroons" - the person who brought more people - had many rights, such as the ones of a feudal lord.
c/1650 - Pause for Effect
As the Puritan rebellion was stirring in England, it made the colonization of North America come to a halt. When Charles I was beheaded, the Puritans ruled 'till 1660. In the year Charles II took the throne and the colonization in America resumed. Charles II had a brother, he was the Duke of York. The Charles put ownership of New Netherland to the Duke. It was renamed "New York."
c/1664 - The Duke of York
The Duke of York was the single largest landowner in America, he gave New Jersey away, what was Delaware, and Pennsylvania. The man who received Pennsylvania was a Quaker. So, many new religions and people moved there, and the land was so fertile; Pennsylvania was the richest colony out there.
c/1685 - Carolina, North and South
Carolina was given to some people in 1663 by King Charles II. Later in 1685 the French king was persecuting the Huguenots, and they found refuge there, in Carolina. As the Huguenots worked the land Charleston became one of the most attractive cities in the Colonies. Then the Crown got jealous and took Carolina back and split it into North Carolina and South Carolina.
c/1676 - Starting Something
The Colonists always wanted say in the laws that had something to do with themselves. So they started the House of Burgessses. But they were still too close to the English government, economically and politically.
All of the arguments usually revolved this one idea; How much control would England have over the colonies?
c/1676 - Burgesses' Laws
After a short and brutal retaliation from a man known as Nathaniel Bacon, the House of Burgesses made a law that prevent men like Bacon to ever become governor. When Bacon's followers were killed, Sir William Berkeley was governor no more.
c/1688 - The Glorious Revolution
When King James II claimed he had the God-given right to rule, he would ignore everyone else and just do what he wanted; he put all the New England colonies under one governor's rule, he also made plans to return England back to Catholicism. All the Protestant Parliament leaders were outraged, and so was everyone else; they all turned to William of Orange. Without support from England, James fled to France, and Parliament set William and Mary as the new rulers of England.
c/1700 - Colonial Government
By now all the governments of the colonies were about the same, there were requirements for voting, about what we have today.
c/1730 - Zenger Madness
The Governors of the 1700's were powerful, and the New York one was corrupt. The governor was William Crosby, despite his power; German immigrant John Peter Zenger opposed him with the New-York Weekly Journal. He stated the truth, and ended up in Jail for it. But Andrew Hamilton - the one of the best lawyers in America - represented Zenger, and won. Now people could print the truth about the government, even if it hurt the government. This was the birth of "Freedom of Press."
John Peter Zenger
1700's - Regions
All the colonies were divided up into 3 parts, The New England colonies, the Middle Colonies, and the South Colonies.
Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia.
c/1642 - Change in Virginia
Virginia's Labor system was changing, all because of William Berkeley. He wanted a remake in America, he wanted it to be the society he had left behind. They wanted more land. So they turned to Indian slavery, than African, it was a lot better.
1700's - Richer and Richer
The African slave trade became very successful, and allowed people like Berkeley to get rich.
(First 2 slides are about the S. Colonies)
New England Colonies
Fishing, Boats, etc.
Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
Connecticut, Rhode Island
1700's - New England Life
New England had a very ocean based economy, with the forests; boats were pretty easy to get, and all the whales and fish. This all made Boston one of the richest and largest towns out there. The New England colonists also had various ways of trading.
1700's - Work and Labor
Despite all the work there was to do in New England, slaves weren't needed all that much. But the chores came in mass quantities.
1720 - The Great Awakening
With only 25% of New England belonging to the Church, many Ministers were furious. So in the '40's the Ministers went from town to town preaching, and the effect made everyone go back to Church.
The Middle Colonies
(Next 3 slides are about the N. E. Colonies)
New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania.
Mid-1700's - Germans in the Middle Colonies
The Germans played a big part in the economy of their Colony, whether it be farming, metal work, craftsmanship, furniture makers, etc.
Mid-1700's - Farming
Through out the Middle Colonies you would find mills, they were all different. Like the power source, it was wind, or maybe animal power. There were lumber mills, grain mills, paper mills, breweries, tanneries, and gristmills; Gristmills were the most common and important mill. Farmers put wheat, corn, or even rye.
Mid-1700's - Prospering in Philadelphia
With the supply of workers and Germans running about, Philadelphia was doing wonderfully. There were shipyards, lots of public building, and the profits were high.
Mid-1700's - Tolerance's Climax
Unlike the other Colonies, the Middle Colonies have been shaped by Quakers and Dutch. The Quakers pointed out the equality between men and women, and there was a multitude of languages spoken and studied. The Quakers also condemned slavery with the Bible.
1700's - Backcountry
People settled farther west, and they were quiet and peaceful folk; they wanted room to live, a nice cabin, and maybe a garden. Later after they settled in a loose town, the Scots-Irish came, but they all had about the same beliefs and values. Honestly, the Backcountry people remind me of the Amish.
c/1770 - France's Trade
All the French settlements based their empires on trade. The money was in the pelts and furs. The fur trade also depended on Indian participation. The French trappers and traders lived like the Indians, and the French also got along with all the Indians, better than all the others. This all added up to the huge profits of the French.
French Progress in North America
1660's - French empire in North America controlled the area around the Great lakes and the St. Lawrence Valley.
1668-1669 - The French took notes about the Indian's homeland.
1673 - 2 Frenchmen set out to explore the Fox River, Wisconsin River, Ohio River, and the Mississippi River.
1677 - French Settlements are started on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
1687 - A Frenchman by the name of La Salle leads a disastrous expedition to the Mississippi. But he did discover Louisiana, before the expedition, though.
1699 - Jean Batiste Bienville leads a successful expedition to the Mississipi
1687-1748 - Fur Trade Warfare
After some fighting with the other Iroquois, the League of Iroquois got into some nasty wars with the French and English. Then the French and Indians were invading the English settlements. It was really nasty, many deaths.
c/1750 - Growth
The sudden growth of the English colony's population changed the balance into an agreeable liking. Then there were "land speculators," land sellers that might make profit one day.
c/1754 - Cold War... Almost
The land speculators were selling land from Ohio, and the French were panicking. So, both the French and English were building forts all along the Ohio River.
1754 - Join, or Die.
That was the political cartoon motto that Benjamin Franklin created in Albany during the meeting between the colonists and the Iroquois. Benjamin wanted the colonies to unite, so that they could easily defend themselves. It was the Albany Plan of Union.
1753 - French Invasion
George Washington, 22 years old and telling the French to leave Virginia. It was supposed to be "peaceful." But it ended up just setting up a fort, a fort called "Fort Necessity."
c/1753 - Advance
The French were going to advance on Fort Necessity, and it would be the first battle of this war. It was also the first loss for the English.
The 7 Years War (1756 - 1763)
After Washington, Braddock tried again. He failed.
1758 - British win at St. Lawrence.
1759 - British win 3 month siege at Ohio Valley.
The British now control all of New France. War ends with the Treaty of Paris. The French and Indians still trade like normal after the war.
1763 - Stopping Movement in the West
The Indian named "Pontiac" had recently caused chaos with British colonies and settlements. His short lived uprising led to the Proclamation of 1763. It said that no one but Indians may settle across the Appalachian Mountains. It led to the rage of all of the colonists, because owning land is the base for your social status. with no base, you are a nobody.
c/1765 - Taxes
Britain's war with France ran the British dead broke, so who do they tax? The colonists, and they didn't like it. More taxes, more regulations, and less freedom.
1765 - Stamps
The Stamp act was an act that would actually tax the colonists directly. All of them revolted, it was a preposterous idea; with the many regulations and steps to receive them.
1765 - Renounce the Stamps!
In October of 1765, all nine colonies formed the Stamp Act Congress in New York City. The started a petition and boycotted all British goods. All this led to the Sons and Daughters of Liberty, made up of the people most affected by this outrageous taxing. All the rebelling made the Stamp act end a year later. Oh, but Parliament wasn't about to give up, they made the Declaratory Act, saying that they COULD tax them whatsoever. It created a big tug-o-war between Parliament and the rebellious Colonies.
1767 - Townshend Acts
The King's personal finance minister, Charles Townshend had another way to tax the colonists, but indirectly. There were taxes on all British imports.
1767 - Public Reaction
All the colonists were outraged and worried about their liberty, and some took it so far, saying that it violated the law of Nature. Everyone new what that meant, it was said that a 17th century English philosopher; It teaches all of mankind that being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health,
, or possessions. Trade between the colonies and Britain dropped immensely. All this led to the Boston Massacre, where the redcoats killed 5 rioters for throwing snowballs at the troops.
c/1767 - More and more
The follow-events of the Boston Massacre were strange, first Parliament decides to eliminate the Townshend act and replaces it with the Tea Act.
1773 - Let's have a Tea Party
Colonists decided to repent the Tea Act. They did this via the Boston Tea Party. Lots of tea had been lost. Benjamin Franklin offered to pay, but the British ignored the offer. The response fueled the fire of the 13 colonies' rebellion.
1774 - What a Terrible Day!
In reaction to the Boston Tea Party, King George created - what the colonists nicknamed - "The Intolerable Acts." They were called that for obvious reasons.
1774 - The Ban Hammer Needs to Speak
The First Continental Congress had been formed just for the purpose of the Intolerable acts. Delegates from all the Colonies but Georgia had met and settled on, "Stop all trade with Britain until the Intolerable Acts are repealed."
1774- Repetition Takes a Turn
The Colonist's boycott was supposed to end up like all the other acts, but it didn't. By the end of 1774 they had formed a militia known as the "Minutemen." The war was expected to be really short.
1775 - Paul Revere
Spies had been planted on both the British and the Colonies' sides. Paul Revere played a huge part in alerting the Colonists of the "Regulars."
1775 - First Blood
After Paul Revere's warnings, the Minutemen met the British soldiers and lost.
1775 - Ferocious
The Colonists and British continued to tangle, and the 2nd Continental Congress met. The Congress knew that they had to prepare for war.
1775 - Bunker Hill
20 miles in to George Washington's journey to Massachusetts, Washington was informed that the Battle of Bunker Hill had taken place, and was - sort of - won by the Patriots.
1775 - Peace
Congress signed and sent the "Olive Branch Petition" to Parliament and it was rejected. The King sent 10,000 Hessians to America.
1776 - Leave!
George Washington was sent to Boston, Massachusetts for a reason; drive the British out. That's exactly what he did, 10,000 British soldiers and American Loyalists arrived back at Britain.
1776 - Papers
News had reached newspapers and pamphlets that America should break free of Britain and some said that we should not.
Thomas Paine, the man who said we should fight Britain
1776 - Declaration
Richard Henry Lee suggests and puts in place "The Declaration of Independence."
c/1776 - Living Situations
George Washington and his Continental Army had terrible living conditions. With no money, they weren't getting anywhere.
1776 - New York City
Coming from Boston, the British entered New York City. The Washington and his new army played "cat and mouse" with the British in hopes of freeing NY.
1776 - New Jersey
George Washington's army went from 20,000 to a few thousand because of the intense cold weather at New Jersey. On Dec. 25, Washington advanced with the little he had left, and won.
1777 - Move, Move, Move!
After George Washington's win, the British sought out to take Philadelphia. They took it, but they didn't get what they wanted.
c/1777 - March!
The British wanted to break the Colonies, and they decided to take the Hudson River Valley, using an elaborate plan; the British strayed from the plan. General Howe was the general who decided to chase Washington. (He strayed from the plan.)
1777 - Shambles
Whilst General Howe was trying to catch Washington, General St. Leger was "dealing" with a group of Patriots. It turned the Iroquois' homeland into a battleground.
c/1777 - It's your Turn
The British army was running out of supplies, like horses. As the Continental Army waited for the Redcoats, the Redcoats were digging through a dirt barrier. This basically killed the army sent after the Continental one.
A Spanish General that helped the Patriots
1778 - Helping Hands
With the Patriots' victory France wanted to join them, later Spain did, too. They sent men, money, funds, and guns to America. This helped the Patriots greatly.
1777 - Winter
General Von Steuben - The man who taught the army how to fight
George Washington spent winter at Valley Forge . There were a couple of European Generals there, and one of them helped the Patriots greatly, in training, order, and cleanliness.
1778 - George Rogers Clark
General George Rogers Clark won many battles against the British, he was a volunteer. He was rewarded money for each outpost he took out.
1777 - War at Sea
Britain had about 100 warships controlling all trade, so the Patriots restarted the tradition of privateering. There were a few stars of this thing, and they helped greatly
c/1778 - Setbacks, Let's go South
The war in the north wasn't going well for the Redcoats, so they focused on slaves in the south, the slaves didn't get what they signed up for. But the British went on a winning streak in the south, because of the loyalists.
c/1778 - I am a Guerrilla!
Lots of Patriot and Loyalist forces were forming ragtag groups that fought like "Guerrillas."
1780 - Complaints and Complaints
Washington's new general, Nathaniel Greene, turned the tides of the war. The impact of each battle made one British general say, "Another such victory will destroy the British Army."
c/1780 - Uhh.... How about PEACE?
The war's sixth year dragged on, and with it, came a surrender from the British.
1782 - Loose ends
The American Negotiators met with British officials to form "The Treaty of Paris." It granted America independence.
c/1782 - Clean up
The Colonists needed to do something about the loyalists, so they took away their property. Most of the others fled to other, british-controlled segments of land. The Declaration of Independence made the Colonies states: The 13 states created the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial branches. The founding fathers created the basis of our government today, in terms of Bills and such.
c/1786 - Ordinances
Among the US' new land was what would be Kentucky; however, there were a few problems there. Congress made 2 "Ordinances" that divided the land, and allowed people to govern and share the land.
An example of an Ordinance
c/1790 - Pushing for Equality
The conditions of one of the Ordinances (IT was "The Northwest Ordinance") was called "Republicanism." That idea made America reconsider slavery; however, all the states banned it. One of the free slaves started the "Free African Society" and also founded a church.
c/1790 - Problems
The Northwest Ordinance was perhaps the greatest achievement by the 1st congress; however, they were terrible at everything else. They had an abundance of international problems, mainly with the "listening" aspect. The Nation was torn, due to the lack of courts, two states almost went to war over a piece of land.
c/1781 - Rebellion
The States were in so much debt. Lawmakers in Massachusetts had outlawed paper money. Farmers lost their land and 80% of the men in jail were there because of their debts. This all brought forth an angry mob, led by Daniel Shays. The mob was finally stopped in 1786.
1786 - Convention
Lawmakers in Virginia called all the states for a convention to end the tension between them.
1787 - Convention Delegates
Twelve states responded to the call. Rhode Island was the one that did not answer. The delegates were all very different, some where under 40; Benjamin Franklin was 81.
1787 - The Virginia Plan
4 days after the Conventions became a normality, Governor Randolph of Virginia proposed the "Virginia Plan," it said; Congress would make the laws, an executive branch would carry out the laws, and the US courts would see justice done under the laws. The Delegates agreed that Congress would be made up of 2 houses, people would vote for the members of Congress. However, there were disagreements. A delegate from New Jersey formed the "New Jersey Plan."
1787 - "The Great Compromise"
During the humid days in Philadelphia, Roger Sherman proposed "The Great Compromise," it formed the Congress we see today. With 2 houses; The House of Representatives, and the Senate. The Great Compromise cleared the big issue about Congress. The delegates focused on slavery, trade, "The Executive" - AKA: The President - and his/her's path to becoming "The Executive."
1787 - The Final Brushstroke
At the end of the summer, all the delegates believed that they did their best. The Constitution had been completed. The States had the final decision to enact it or not.
1787 - Hot Topic
Word of the Constitution had reached everywhere by autumn, People were talking about it all the time. Some Argues broke out, forming the "Federalists" and "Anti-federalists." The Federalists were in favor, and the Anti-Federalists were not. Thomas Jefferson received a copy of the Constitution; Jefferson was impressed, he wanted to add "The Bill of Rights." Over in America, the small states ratified it, and slowly Massachusetts and New Hampshire did that, too. Then Virginia, and New York. North Carolina and Rhode island didn't accept it till a year later.
The Constitution had a system of checks an balances. Where each of the 3 branches of government had certain powers over the other.
The three levels of government had individual and shared powers.
1791 - The Bill of Rights
Congress added the first 10 additions to the Constitution. They are a group: The Bill of Rights. Additions to the Constitution are known as amendments.
April, 1789 - Starting a new nation
It was at noon, that George Washington arrived at New York for his inauguration.
c/1789 - Final Pieces
The country had almost everything that they needed, except for courts. They made several courts - because of "The Federal Judiciary aCt" - including the "Supreme Court."
1789 - The Cabinets
Congress created 3 departments, or "Cabinets," that George Washington appointed the leaders for.
The Country's most crushing problem was the overwhelming $52 million debt. Washington asked Alexander Hamilton to help, and so he did. Hamilton was influenced by Adam Smith, who started up "Capitalism."
1790 - Presentations
Hamilton presented Capitalism to Congress, he had 3 reasons; raising government revenues, paying of all war debts, and War debts. Not many southern states approved. So Hamilton turned to Thomas Jefferson. They struck a bargain that would help both of them. Sadly this caused many arguments on the subject of a national bank
1793 - Much Struggle
Spain, Great Britain, and Indian nations were arguing about the Treaty of Paris and the Americans. They were fighting over land and they didn't want to cope with the Americans.
c/1794 - Battle of Fallen Timbers
Washington's army was defeated and later held a victory against the non-compliant Indians of what was Ohio, because of the Indian's loss; they signed the Treaty of Greenville."
1794 - The Whiskey Rebellion
Frontier farmers were angered by the impish tax on whiskey. To some, this tax was just as bad as the British Taxes.
Whiskey was one of the taxed
items included in Hamilton's
c/1793 - The French Revolution
The French Revolution had gotten a little out of hand, and many feared it would spread. America already had enough problems, so they remained neutral towards Britain and France.
1794 - Remaining Neutral
With Britain decided to raid and seize 250 trading ships from America, George Washington decided to invest in a navy, and America's warships, or frigates, were the fastest and best of their type.
c/1793 - Political Parties are Formed
2 members from Washington's cabinet -Hamilton and Jefferson- started arguing over the Nation's plans. They liked opposite things, and this led to Jefferson quitting his job. This made up "political parties." Jefferson was the "Democratic-Republican Party," and Hamilton became the Federalists.
Jefferson's followers were mainly farmers and artisans. They were known as Republicans, and they liked limited Government as well as low taxes. Hamilton's Federalists liked strong government.
After Washington's second term he retired, publishing the Farewell Address, and gave some last minute advice that people would follow for the next 150 years.
1796 - Retirement
c/1796 - John Adams in Office
Washington's retirement plans sparked up a new question; "Who was going to be the new president? The finishing vote was John Adams with 71 to Thomas Jefferson's 68 votes.
1797 - Office Problems
America's relationship with France was still tense, leading to "Jay's Treaty" and the capturing of 300 American trading ships, courtesy of France. With arguing and a failed bribe America decided to recruit an army.
1798 - The Alien and Sedition Acts
The Republicans revolted about the new war, and with more and more Republican immigrants coming John Adams decided to pass the "Alien and Sedition Acts," giving Adams power over the new immigrants. All the events that happened because of this act made it seem unconstitutional.
c/1798 - The Republican Response
All this angered James Madison and Thomas Jefferson, because their Liberty was at stake. They challenged the new Act and Congress eventually let the Act expire.
1800 - Napoleon Comes to Power
A new French leader, Napoleon, came to power and made peace with the United States, ending all the naval warfare and such.
1800 - Oh the Horror
It was about time; Hamilton's term was over, and the tension between the Federalists and Republicans turned bitter, each slinging mud at each other.
1800 - So Close
The elections carried on, with Jefferson at 73 to Hamilton's 65. There was a problem, a tie between Jefferson and his "VP" Alexander Burr. Hamilton said stuff, and Jefferson won!
c/1800 - Our Talented Jefferson
Jefferson influenced Washington DC in many ways along with many accomplishments. As humble as he was, he was one of the best Presidents ever. Jefferson undid many of the Federalist programs, yet the thorn in his side was the Judicial branch. With many Federalist judges, he didn't get too much done.
Federalist Judge John Marshal
A Little Back story...
c/1800 - The Pacific Coast
Russia claimed the Alaskan Coast in the 1740's, and in retaliation Spain claimed the California Coast. In 1800 Spain had 21 outposts on the Californian Coast.
c/1800 - British Canadians
The British Canadians were pushing Westward, and they claimed the pacific Northwest. They did this with the same motives as the Russians, furs. All this made the Oregon coast very popular for trading between the New England people and Native Americans
c/1800 - Technological Changes
Many Spanish explorers left behind horses, which the Indians from the Great Plains learned to tame and ride. Causing great change with the Plains Indians.
On the Appalachian Mountain frontier's settlers were on collision course with the Plains Indians culture.
c/1800 - Moving Westward
c/1800 - Shifting Foreign Policy
When Jefferson became President, foreign policy made a important change. The concerns of the West and South were more important than those of the North. 1/3 of the US Trade happened in the West Indies, and then France started to control what is Haiti, and Spain controlled what was the Dominican Republic. A revolt happened on the Island, and it soon ended, with the slaves winning.
c/1802 - The Louisiana Purchase
With Europe in Napoleon's grip, he did many things and eventually sold New Orleans, and later the rest of Louisiana to America.
c/1803 - Lewis and Clark and other Explorers
Lewis was selected by Jefferson to be his secretary, he formed the Corps of Discovery. The corps discovered and explored Louisiana, the Missouri River, multiple Indian settlements, the Rocky Mountains, the Great falls of Missouri and the Columbia River.
c/1805 - Zebulon Pike
An Army officer by the name of Zebulon Pike set out to explore, like Lewis and Clark, Pike searched for the Red River. Along the way he found Pike Peak (The Southern Rockies) and he was arrested for trespassing in New Spain. Later in 1820 Stephen
Long tried and failed. All this work made up
and helped the fur trade as well as more
1803 - War is Provoked
As Jefferson was reelected he was outraged that France were seizing American trade ships and Britain was too, he couldn't ignore these attacks.
c/1807 - The Power of Trade
Congress passed a law denying all foreign trade. Jefferson thought it would be good, but it was a disaster. In 1808 Madison was elected and he stopped the law (1809).
c/1809 - Indian Unity
A Native American named Tecumseh tried and failed to unite the Indian Tribes. Later he fought and lost a battle. It was called the Battle of Tippecanoe.
c/1812 - Canada
The rebelling Indians fled to Canada, and some Americans called, "War Hawks" wanted Britain out. Even out of Canada. Then, the War of 1812 began.
c/1812- The of 1812
The War of 1812 happened, consisting of The Battle of Lake Erie, a win. The burning of the Capital, then the British attacked Fort McHenry, the British tried to cut New England off from the rest of the Country, it failed. Then the British failed at New Orleans, and no one won, because of the earlier Treaty of Ghent.
c/1815 - The Supreme Court
Chief Justice John Marshal strengthened the Supreme court, leading to the improved of other federal courts.
c/1830 - The Industrial Revolution
In America, the Industrial Revolution was happening. There was new machinery, involving hydro power, steam boats, new factories, and America was dominated by railroads.
c/1773 - Changes in the South
The cotton gin, made by Eli Whitney dominated the Southern cotton fields. The profits where high, and the slaves where working the gin. The slaves made up 1/3 of the South's population, and they led hard lives.
Early 1800's - Resistance and Rebellion
With the hard life slaves led, they resisted anyway they could. They led angry mobs, killing all white slavers that they could find. State Legislatures passes terrible laws, restricting slaves.
Nat tuner, a slave who rebelled.
c/1824 - The Missouri Compromise
Each division of the US stood on economic changes, thus "sectionalism" was born. When Missouri applied for statehood Congress erupted with the question: should Missouri have slavery? 11 non-slave states said no, and the other 11 slave states said yes. The debate raged for months, and finally Missouri became a slave state and Maine became a free state.
c/1824 - The Presidential Elections
The Republican party split apart, with 4 men seeking Presidency, the House of Representatives became the decider. John Quincy Adams won, however, he spent most of his four years quarreling with Congress.
1828 - The 1828 Elections
As Adams' 4 years were up, the elections arrived. With the Democrats supporting Jackson and Adams, backed by the Republicans; they both threw mud at each other but Jackson won by a landslide.
c/1829 - The American Hero known as "Old Hickory"
Attending Jackson's Inauguration came people from a 500 mile radius. He was very popular because of his life's hardships. Involving a dead father, surviving the Carolina Frontier's farming, joining the militia at age 13, and serving as a POW. (Prisoner Of War) He became a planter in Tennessee, whilst practicing law.
1829 - The Mob
Jackson's ceremony was total chaos, With the death of his wife, Jackson was as down as ever. The party was a total madhouse.
c/1829 -Jackson's New Era of Politics
By saying that duties of public offices are really simple, and firing many government officials, Jackson launched a new era of politics. He thought up and made the "spoils system"
c/1817 - The Cherokee Nation
Ever since the events of 1812 the government has encouraged the Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi River. They didn't, and Jackson placed a choice between them. Resulting in the Cherokees gaining the "white man's" way of life. In 1827, they adopted a constitution. No matter what they did, they'd never be accepted by the Americans.
1830 - Prying the Indians from their Land
Many of the States tried to pry the Indians from their land, so Jackson defied the Supreme Court ruling and passed the Indian Removal Act. Jackson made people enforce the law.
c/1838 - The Trail of Tears
The journey that the Indians had to undergo became known as the "Trail of Tears." But not all the Indians took the Trail. There was resistance and some Cherokee ended up in the mountains and other places.
c/1830 - Sectional Differences
When Jackson became President the different regions were arguing and didn't agree on too much. Than when Adams' term was almost up Congress passed a law that upset the South.
c/1830 - The Doctrine of Nullification
The new law caused outrage in the South, and they threatened to leave the Union. The vice president came up with the doctrine of nullification. It solved all the problems.
c/1830 - The Debates Rage on
The doctrine calmed the southerners, and a debate over land sparked up between Robert Hayne and Daniel Webster.
c/1833 - The Unsatisfied South
Jackson understood the South's hatred of the law on Tariffs. So they formed a compromise that would slowly do its thing in a period of 10 years. This made South Carolina stay in the Union.
c/1832 - The New Bank
When Congress put together the Second Bank of The United States, Jackson distrusted it. So he vetoed it, it was a powerful one at that. His reasoning won him the elections of 1832. Then in '36 the new "pet banks" sent the nation into panic. There was more paper money than there was gold and silver, causing inflation.
c/1836 - Jackson's Term is up
When Martin Van Buren won the 1836 elections, the Nation went into its first depression. Buren wanted to leave the economy alone, and so the people formed the "Whig Party." When the elections of 1840 came around the Whig Party won.
Mid-1800's - Immigrants
Many people from Europe immigrated to the United States, and even more people gained the urge. Things in America seemed to be perfect. With bad things happening to the Irish in Britain. So more and more immigrants...
c/1850 - The Irish Immigrants
Lots of Irish poured into the major port cities in America, and one newspaper said, "Waterpower, steam power, and Irish power run the United States."
c/1850 - Prejudice
The Irish's beliefs conflicted with the ones of the local population. People started to have no affiliation with them. Eventually people started to be more friendly.
c/1850 - Immigrant Influence
All the Immigrants had different ways to influence the American "melting pot" culture. The most influential could have been the Germans, for example: Levi Strauss. He made the blue jeans company we see today as Levi's Jeans.
c/1800's - Another Awakening
Back in 1801 a Second Great Awakening happened. Since then there have been changes in work and education. The work involved a strike, and there were more and more educated people, so the demand for newspapers and books rose.
1841 - Dorothea Cares
Dorothea Dix worked at a local Sunday School at a women's prison. She discovered and fixed the mistreatment of the mentally ill, creating 32 hospitals and the prison reform.
c/1843 - The Temperance Movement
Heavy drinking was a huge problem in America, so people banded together stop this mess that it was causing for families and lives. They gave up drinking, it was called temperance. They handed out pledges and lots of people signed. Some states even went as far as banning alcohol.
c/1850 - The Shakers
The reform movements were all in attempt to improve society, but some people wanted to start from scratch; these "Shakers" wanted to build a utopia. The Shakers set up communities along the frontier, and life there was simple.
c/1850's - Tocqueville
A man named "Tocqueville" set out to observe the United States' culture. He observed some peculiar things. He wrote a book about his findings back in France.
c/1960 - Calls for Ending Slavery
A group of reformers called abolitionists started talking about how slavery was against Christianity and they went on from that. One of them wrote a series of books, and another started a newspaper. The anti-slavery movements were strongest in the North. (Setting up for the Civil War.)
c/1840's - The Underground Railroad
People who wanted to end slavery formed The Underground Railroad. A series of escapes leading to the North.
c/1840 - Women's Rights
The leaders of the antislavery movement met up in London, England. When the female delegates tried to take part in the meeting they were silenced. The antislavery movement gained the women's equality as a companion. But the women's equality idea struggled for a while.
1800's - American Culture
As American writers copied Europe's styles and art, Washington Irving was writing American Literature. Then, more and more authors joined in and wrote unique pieces.
c/1840 - The Nation's Culture
Ralph Waldo Emerson started to take pride and first find the Nation's culture. His ideas made New England the center for American literature. Another original American "thinker" was David Thoreau, who wrote Walden. More American thinkers came around and started the Hudson River School and "passive resistance."
Early 1800's - Revolt in Mexico
Many Mexicans protested against Spain's rule over them, and eventually Spain had to give in. When this happened it set off many things, such as the borders between the US and Mexico to open, more people moving to California, and the population of Texas to boom. Than the Mexican government closed the Texas border to stop illegal immigrants, and the Anglo-American population grew.
c/1830 - Texas in Upheaval
The settlers and residents of Texas were split on joining the US or (in some people's opinion) join Mexico. One man, Stephen Austin, undid all the things the people wanted, instead of causing wonders; Austin triggered a war.
1836 - War in Texas
Santa Anna (Mexico City's president) became Texas' dictator. Everything escalated, there was a battle over a cannon. That skirmish took place at the Alamo.
c/1836 - Santa Anna's Fall
After the events at the Alamo, the Mexican army proceeded to kill +300 men at Goliad. It sparked an anger in all the Texan's eyes. A Texan by the name of Houston led the last remaining Texan army to victory at San Jacinto. Santa Anna was captured, Texas gained independence and Sam Houston was the new leader of Texas.
c/1830 - The Lone Star Republic
Texas became a self governing country, but Texas wanted to join the Union. They were denied because of the outnumbering slave states in Congress.
c/1830's - Exploring the Western Parts
After a man by the name of William Ashley put an ad in a newspaper, he gained workers known as "mountain men." They explored and added trails to the maps. They encountered the Oregon Country and traversed the Oregon Trail. Life on the Trail was rough, and many people experienced it together
c/1847 - Mormon Immigrants
Because of the hostilities the Mormons received in the States, a band of them set out for Utah. There, they built Salt Lake City. They figured out how to survive in the harsh, dry conditions of Utah.
c/1850's - Presidential Decisions
In order to gain supporters for the 1844 elections, James K. Polk encouraged settling in Oregon. With his campaign slogans, he won. By winning, he decided to add Texas to the Union. Doing so, he started the Mexican War.
c/1850 - The Mexican War
During the early phases of the war, the citizens of the States were torn about the war. It didn't stop the US from winning.
c/1850 - The California Gold Rush
John Sutter decided to start a colony by the American River in California, there he found gold. It caused a flood of immigrants and people moving out to California in search of fortune. The immigrants caused a boom in the Californian economy, preparing it for statehood.
c/1850 - The growing distance between the North and the South
After the American Revolution the North and South have always been different. Now, they're even more different and they're growing. The Mason-Dixon Line is the only boundary. (The Ohio River) In the North, the growing abolition of slavery is spreading and their economy is booming because of it. One of the few things in common was the racism towards slaves. All these differences effected even Congress.
c/1850 - Congress
The fight against slavery was growing, and some people rallied together to form the Free-Soil Party, with 13 seats in Congress. This all worried the
South, it spread the talk of leaving the Union.
c/1850 - The Compromise
Henry Clay once again rose up from Kentucky and created a compromise between the North and South, the argument was about California. It was Clay's Compromise of 1850.
1852 - "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
After the Fugitive Slave act was passed, Harriet Beecher published "Uncle Tom's Cabin." It passed a ton of abolitionist feelings among the free states.
1854 - Slavery in Congress
Once again the ugly topic of slavery entered Congress. Everyone was arguing, so Stephen Douglas created the Kansas-Nebraska act. Everyone liked it because it scraped the Missouri Compromise and let everyone choose whether to be a slave state or a free state.
c/1856 - Kansas is a Battlefield
Both sides wanted Kansas to be their kind of state, it led to dishonest elections, 2 governments, and attacks on antislavery settlements. Eventually Kansas entered the Union as a free state.
1857 - The Dred Scott Case
A debate landed in the Supreme court's eyes, about a slave who was suing for freedom. It was ruled out, because the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.
1858 - The Presidential Elections
The Republicans campaigned against the Democrats in an effort to make a deal with the South. Their candidate, Abraham Lincoln debated against Stephen Douglas and lost, but Stephen Douglas lost the support from the South.
1859 - John Brown
John Brown, a man from Kansas who supported the antislavery movement in the South attempted to raid a weapons cache. He and his band were either killed or hanged. People started praising Brown for his sacrifice. The South started thinking about leaving the Union.
1860 - The Presidential Elections
With the South not supporting one person in the Elections the Republicans seized the opportunity and set Lincoln as their candidate. Lincoln won 180 electoral votes and that won him the election. Lincoln only wanted to stop the spread of slavery, but few listened and one by one the Southern states seceded.
1861 - The Confederacy
As the Southern states seceded from the Union they formed the Confederate States of America.
c/1862 - Crisis in the Union
All the Northern states were shocked by the move played by the South. Congress tried one last time to buy them back. It didn't work so well. The Confederates were getting very aggressive and things seemed like it wouldn't get better. The Confederates even started the Civil War just by bombing Fort Sumter.
1861 - The War
After Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas left the Union both sides decided that the border states would be most important. To the North, the most important was Maryland. The Union took some of Virginia and made "West Virginia." It seemed like the Union had all the advantages, but they were completely unprepared for war.
1861 - Bull Run
On July 18th 1861 30,000 Union forces marched onto a stream known as Bull Run. They were met by 20,000 ragtag Confederate soldiers. By mid-day new Confederate troops arrived at the scene and clobbered the overconfident yet weary Union troops.
c/1861 - Naval Warfare
The Union decided to make a blockade that would cripple the enemy's trade. It was very useless and 9/10 ships got through, then a new technology came along and turned the Union boats into powerhouses. Than the Union and Confederates came up with "ironclad" ships, coated with iron. When either one of them faced each other it turned into a draw.
c/1862 - General Ulysses S. Grant
Grant spent some time preparing for the war, and he made the bold decision of invading Tennessee. He used 2 ironclad gunboats to capture forts along the river. When the news reached Nashville everyone fled in a panic. It was the first major victory over a major city.
c/1862 - The Battle of Shiloh
After Grant's victory he encountered another win at the Battle of Shiloh. He did it by attacking at dawn, when the Confederates weren't prepared.
1862 -New Orleans
Just as the news of the Battle of Shiloh arrived at the South , they also heard news of a lost New Orleans by the hands of David Farragut.
c/1863 - Robert E. Lee
Some months after Bull Run the Union army is attacked by Robert E. Lee and his band of soldiers. It was a loss for the North and what was known as the Seven Days Battle. Lee wanted to invade the North, but he was stopped at the Battle of Antietam, where he retreated.
1863 - Lincoln's Proclamation
Lincoln wanted to tell the South what they had ignored and oversaw, he made the Emancipation Proclamation. It cleared up all the misconceptions of him.
Southern Pennsylvania: Robert E. Lee's army stood at Gettysburg when they stumbled into Union cavalry. The Battle was on. General Meade led the Union into battle and during General Pickett's (Confederate) Charge that the Union had won. In July the Battle of Vicksburg had been won by the Union. Later in November President Lincoln gave his famous Gettysburg Address.
June, 1863 - The Battle of Gettysburg
1854 - Total War
General Sherman from the South was the first to wage "total war," destroying everything in your path. He did this in Georgia going towards the Atlantic.
Spring 1855 - The Noose thickens...
General Ulysses S. Grant of the North had an army twice the size of Gen. Lee's. General Sherman was going crazy, and Lee was surrounded. So Gen. Lee ended up surrendering. The agreements were pleasant and generous between Grant and Lee.
1865 - My American Cousin
When Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln went to see "My American Cousin" Mr. Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. Booth proceeded to break his leg and die a few days later.
End of Timeline
Thanks Mr. Benetti!