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Reproductive System Test Review!

Period 7 AP Bio
by

Ali Alderson

on 21 March 2013

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Transcript of Reproductive System Test Review!

Hormones Both:
Hypothalamus produces gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
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Pituitary gland releases lutenizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)



trigger male and female hormones Secondary Sex Characteristics Reproductive
System Male:
Testes release testosterone
facial hair, lower voice, muscle development
Female:
Ovaries release estrogen, progesterone
breasts grow, body shape changes, period begins Female Male Prostate -- secretes a sperm nutrient Vans Deferens --connects the testicles to the urethra. Epididymis--
1. transport and storage of the sperm cells
that are produced
2. brings the sperm to maturity Entrance to uterus-- usually covered with mucus to prevent sperm from entering Home to the maturing egg cells In Males hypothalamus GnRH anterior pituitary FSH LH Leydig cells (produce adrogens,
esp testosterone) sertoli cells nourish developing sperm Negative Feedback Negative Feedback In Females Follicle grows secretes estrogen
in increasing amounts FSH LH stimulate the follicle to grow hypothalamus GdRH anterior pituitary follicle ruptures LH stimulates transformation
to corpus luteum Progesterone +
estrogen positive feedback negative feedback 1. nurtures the fertilized ovum that
develops into the fetus
2. holds it till the baby is mature
enough for birth AKA Bulbourethral Gland-- Secretes alkaline fluid to neutralize urethra Testes-- Where sperm and testosterone production takes place By Ali Alderson Bartholin's Gland produces mucus Oogenesis only 1 egg is formed because of unequal distribution of cytoplasm

occurs in stages-- most of oogenesis before the girl is even born, the rest happens after the egg has been fertilized Spermatogenesis Mitosis Meiosis I Meiosis II Differentiation Creates 4 sperm with equal cytoplasm

Occurs throughout a man's life

Happens in the Seminiferous Tubules
Ovarian Cycle 1. Hypothalamus releases GnRH
2. GnRH stimulates anterior pituitary gland to secrete LH and FSH
3. FSH causes follicle growth
4. Follicle begins to produce estrogen
-----estrogen levels rise
-----part of ovarian cycle where oocytes grow and mature
-----Estrogen has positive feedback with hypothalamus and A.P.
5. Estrogen levels spike ---> spike in FSH and LH
6. LH spike causes ovary to rupture (ovulation)
7. LH then turns the follicle into the corups luteum
-----estrogen and progesterone are produced
-----these hormones have negative feedback now Menstrual Cycle 1. Estrogen and Progesterone from corpus luteum travel to uterus to prepare it for the egg
2. Estrogen thickens the uterus wall (called the endometrium)
3. Glands secrete fluid that sustains the embryo
4. If the egg is not fertilized, the endometrium begins to break down and shed-- resulting in a period Fertilization and Birth --- Takes hundreds of sperm to eat away at the jelly coating of the egg (called the zona pellucida)
--- Many cells surround the zona pellucida to block some sperm

Ovulation fertilization ablastacist implants in utuerus lining embryo development

---Blood from mom never touches blood from baby!!
---- ambillical cord has COREON MEMBRANE that just takes what the baby needs from the mom's blood
---Fetus makes the hormone HCG to mimick the LH long enough to keep the corups luteum working until placenta forms

Sperm Movement FSH --> Sertoli cells signal sperm production

Sperm made in Seminiferous Tubules

S. Tubules --> Epididymis (grow and become fertile)

Epididymis + fluid from Seminal Vesicle = Semen

Semen --> Vans Deferens

Vans Deferens + sperm nutrient from prostate gland --> Urethra

Bulbourethral Gland neutralizes the urethra before ejaculation
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