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Language Development theorists
Transcript of Language Development theorists
parental influences They believed that Creativity was
influential to development High Academic Achievements
in Their Youth Noam Chomsky
1928- Lev Semenovich Vygotsky
1896-1934 Burrhus Frederic Skinner
1904-1990 Background Raised in United States Raised in Belarus…..raised under socialist movement with the emphasis being that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Chomsky believed that individuals
make subconscious choices
from a linguistic menu Vygotsky Raised in United States, partly during the depression Studied philosophy, math, linguistics Parents involved in social issues Wanted to be a writer Parents involved with social issues Studied law Both of his parents had an appreciation for the arts, he was exposed to poetry and theater. Skinner believed that individuals make subconscious choices as well but they are based on positive/negative reinforcements Universal Grammar
(Innate ability) Development is a social activity,
exposure to advanced level No innate language ability,
developed through exposure and reinforcement Chomsky Believed that language is a response to another’s behavior Believed language development
is based in exposure Vygotsky Skinner Stage Development Chomsky Skinner Children have a higher capacity,
develop restriction through growth Development is environmental and conditional Beliefs Chomsky Skinner Vygotsky Behavior intervention,
Behavior is not the result of any preceding stimulus but on the consequence or reinforcer
(behavior is result of conditioning) Creativity and Innovation Historical-cultural theory of psychology,
Believes there is a genetic predisposition
to language capacity and development Skinner Chomsky Vygotsky Chomsky Language is shaped by experience and INTRINSIC motivators Skinner Behavior is shaped by experiences and EXTRINSIC motivators Language is a process of free creation; its laws and principles are fixed, but the manner in which the principles of generation are used is free and infinitely varied. Even the interpretation and use of words involves a process of free creation.
Noam Chomsky The way positive reinforcement is carried out is more important than the amount.
B. F. Skinner Give me a child and I'll shape him into anything.
B. F. Skinner "...the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers." (p. 86)
Vygotsky, L. (1978) Mind in Society: The Development of Psychological Processes. "Therefore the only good kind of instruction is that which marches ahead of development and leads it; it must be aimed not so much at the ripe as at the ripening functions. It remains necessary to determine the lowest threshold at which instruction in, say, arithmetic may begin, since a certain minimal ripeness of junctions is required. But we must consider the upper threshold as well; instruction must be oriented toward the future, not the past.” (pp. 188-189)
Vygotsky, L. (1962) Thought and Language. Chomsky believes in inquiry based learning, which has an emphasis on curiosity and creativity and is student directed However, Skinner thought that results are driven by what the teacher does/gives (positive/negative reinforcements)
He believed in a more structured environment “The whole educational and professional training system is a very elaborate filter, which just weeds out people who are too independent, and who think for themselves, and who don't know how to be submissive, and so on -- because they're dysfunctional to the institutions.”
Noam Chomsky Main Theories Chomsky Skinner Vygotsky Works on innate knowledge, universal grammar, external environments, language acquisition ideas Behavior can be changed by external environment Believed that the social collective is essential for the intellectual and linguistic development of an individual. the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Overview (1996). Reflections. Resonance, Retrieved from http://www.chomsky.info/books/state02.pdf (2012). Positive reinforcement. Retrieved from http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/specedu/behaviour/key_element6.pdf Thinkexist.com. (2013). Retrieved from http://thinkexist.com/quotation/the-way-positive-reinforcement-is-carried-out-is/364451.html Thinkexist.com. (2013). Retrieved from http://thinkexist.com/quotation/give-me-a-child-and-i-ll-shape-him-into-anything/538445.html Pollard, A. (2002). Readings for reflective teaching. Continuum Intl Pub Group. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books? Vygotsky, L. (1962) Thought and Language.