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The Cold War

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Emily Rochford

on 7 February 2017

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Transcript of The Cold War

The Cold War
Aftermath of WWII
Containment
Tension mounts
Cold War at Home
Cold War at Home Continues
The Arms Race
The United Nations- 1945
The Truman Doctrine
The Marshall Plan- 1948
The Berlin Airlift
NATO/ Warsaw Pact
China Falls to Communism- 1949
The Loyalty Programs
Spy Cases in the United States
- After the rigged communist systems were implanted in much of Eastern Europe, rebels began to threatened democracy in Greece and Turkey. At this point, Truman decided to offer these countries military aid.

Truman promised to:

- Avoided appeasement
- Promised to protect any nation fighting against Communism

The Truman doctrine will influence later fighting in many countries including: Korea, Vietnam and Afghanistan.

- After the Nuremberg Trials and "Denazification" of Germany, rebuilding in Europe was desperately needed
- Much of Europe was devastated and facing famine.
- Secretary of State George C. Marshall, proposed that massive aid be given to war torn countries, in order to rebuild their economies
- MacArthur also spent resources to rebuilt Japan.
The Marshall Plan helped create strong alliances and strong trading partners with the United States.
- In 1948, the French, British and Americans decided to merge their zones of occupation into a single state.
- The Soviets reacted to the merger by announcing a blockade of West Berlin.
- The Western Nations refused to abandon West Berlin, so a massive airlift began in order to feed and supply the west half of the city.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(1949)
- Based a concept of collective security
- They pledged to defend one another if attacked

Warsaw Pact
(1955)
-Response from the USSR
- Alliance between the USSR and its satellite nations
- The Chinese Communist party, led by Mao Zedong, was able to overthrow the Nationalist Party, in 1949, with support from the USSR.
- Nationalist Leaders fled to Taiwan
- The U.S. refused to accept China as a "Red State" and used its Veto power to allow "Red China" into the UN
- The U.S. also pledged to protect the Nationalist government on Taiwan against any Communist attacks
-In 1950, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were charged with selling national secrets to the USSR about constructing the atomic bomb

-They were convicted and executed.

- Many doubted their guilt, but in 1997, the Venona Papers revealed Julius Rosenberg's guilt.
-In 1950, Joseph McCarthy claimed to know of hundreds of Communists who had infiltrate the U.S. State Department

- After three years of trials, McCarthy never provided any real proof for his charges.

- Considered the second "Red Scare"

- The witch hunt frightened many Americans
-By 1949, the Soviet Union had developed its own atomic bomb
-In response, by 1952, the US has developed the hydrogen bomb which was immensely more powerful than the original bombs
- Policies of deterrent were set in motion
- Anti Communist fear and propaganda spread through the United States

- Loyalty Review Boards were put in place to investigate new hires by the federal government and interrogate anyone suspected of "Communism"

- The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was established through congress to investigate any American disloyalty

- The Hollywood Ten were found guilty by HUAC and sentenced to 6 months - year in prison.

-McCarren- Walter Act (1952) was vetoed by Truman.
The Korean War
The Red Dot Game
Directions:
You will participate in an activity in which
you will form groups based on your secret
identities-
1. You will each receive a piece of paper
Some are blank
Some have a dot drawn on them
Hint: There are fewer dots than non-dots

When you receive your piece of paper you
must secretly look at it. If you receive a dot
you must not reveal it to anyone.
When you are done looking hide it or put it in your pocket.
Goal of the Activity:
The goal of the activity is to form as
large of a group of “non-dot” members as possible

Points:
The largest group of “non-dot” students will win 10 points.
The whole group will lose if there is one “dot” member in your group
“Dot” members will win 10 points for being the only dot in a group
Advice:
Since everyone in the class will deny
having a dot you must look for any
indication of suspicion

If you suspect someone has a dot you
should say out loud, “Bob is a dot!”

If you are a “Dot” then you must bluff to convince others that you are not a dot.
What questions do you have?

On GO: You have 5 minutes to talk to
each other and form groups with “nondot”
members.

When I turn off the lights, you must
freeze in your place and talking must
end immediately.
Classwork:
Please grab a book and turn to page 658. This work is to be done independently. Please write a complete MAIN IDEA sentence for each paragraph. Also you must color in the maps of the areas impacted by Cold War policy in the 40s and 50s.
Duck and Cover
Liberating Europe
Rising Tensions
Yalta marked a turning point in Soviet-American relations. President Roosevelt had hoped that an Allied victory and the creation of the United Nations would lead to a more peaceful world. Instead, as the war came to an end, the United States and the Soviet Union became increasingly hostile toward each other. The Potsdam Conference furthered this divide. The Cold War, an era of confrontation and competition between the nations, lasted from about 1946 to about 1990.
USSR
United States
Fears:
- Security in Europe
- Capitalist countries trying to destroy communism
Goals:
- Weaken Germany
- Influence Eastern block to adhere to communist ideology
- Protect communist ideology against capitalist countries
Fears:
- Economic devastation due to a lack of trade or continued warfare
- The take over of sovereign European Countries
- The Spread of Communism- The Iron Curtain
Goals:
- Strengthen and rebuild the democratic countries in Europe
- Protect countries from communism
The Iron Curtain Speech
New European Map
Actual Agreements at Yalta
1. Bring all war criminals just and swift punishment.

2. Jointly occupy and administer Germany by establishing four occupation zones.

3. Establishes the UN with the Major powers having veto power.

4. The major powers are United States, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, and China.

5. The Soviets keep the territory that they had acquired in 1939-1940.

6. Establish democratic Eastern European governments that are friendly to the Soviets.

7. The Soviet Union will declare war on Japan 90 days after VE Day. Notably, no agreement was made concerning war reparations or European Empires.
The Kennedy Years
Kennedy's Inauguration
The Peace Corps
Kennedy's Space Challenge
Bay of Pigs Invasion
The Berlin Wall
The Cuban Missile Crisis
Kennedy Pledges Support for West Berlin
Beginning of "Arms" Control
Kennedy Orders the Desegregation of AL School
Kennedy is Assassinated
January 20th, 1961: John F. Kennedy is inaugurated. He becomes the 35th President of the United States.
What famous charge does he give the America People?
March 1st: The Peace Corps is established to send Americans to aid impoverish nations.
- By 1957, the USSR launched the first man made satellite, Sputnik beginning the "space race" between the superpowers. We launch our first satellite in 1958.

- Kennedy challenges the US to make landing on the moon a priority.
June: Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev meet, but nothing is resolved.

Construction begins on the Berlin Wall August of 1961.
How has tension between the communist USSR and the democratic US increased during Kennedy's presidency?
The Cuban Missile Crisis
The detection of nuclear missiles in Cuba leads to a 13 day standoff after the U.S. sets up a blockade around the island nation.
Kennedy pledges to support West Berlin in his famous "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech amid concerns that the US may abandon West Berlin.
July: US and the Soviet Union sign a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, signaling a dawn for the arms control between the two nations.
Sept: Kennedy orders the National Guard to help enforce desegregation in Birmingham, Ala. schools.
November 22, 1963: Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, TX while on a two-day tour. Police arrest and hold Lee Harvey Oswald for the shooting.
While watching the video clip- describe the Bay of Pigs invasion in your own words.
Full transcript