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Process based art for children

process-based art in early education, daycare setting, stages of scribbling, early literacy, how to talk to children about their art

Nanette Stark

on 11 July 2016

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Transcript of Process based art for children

Using Process-based art in the early childcare environment
Process vs Product Based Art

Plan to make art an experience. Print rich environment. Books and posters that show works of art. Soft music playing. Art or creative station to explore art. Art is a choice. Child uses new materials. Art is a time to play and explore. Art can be calming for child and provider. Art is displayed when child is finished. Parents ask "what is this?" Child has lots of space and time to create.
by Nanette Stark
These higher-level thinking skills won’t develop through copying or following directions (
), but through the
of problem-posing that goes along with invention and experimentation. Rachelle Doorley (Tinkerlab)
Developmental stages of scribbling
Developmental stages of drawing
Round shapes
Children identifying what they are drawing
Faces and people appear (4-5 year olds)
baseline drawing (no perspective or scale)
perspective and scale appear (8-10 year olds)
Conversations to have with child:
instead of saying "that's awesome" do a play by play..."I see you using your whole arm, I see you making blue circles, etc."

"lines and shapes as symbols for other things is the bridge leading to symbol recognition and formation used in reading and writing...the more experience a child has with producing art, the easier learning to read and write will be later on..." Susan Stryker (Young at Art)
Viktor Lowefield states "the naming of scribbling is of the highest significance, for it is a an indication that the child's thinking has changed. Before this stage, he was satisfied with the motions themselves, but now he has connected his motions to the world around him...kinesthetic thinker to an imaginative thinker in terms of pictures."
When a child names her drawing, ask questions about the drawing. If child labels a drawing as "mom" then ask about mom...is she tall, does she cook, is she nice to hug, etc. Improving the drawing is not priority...using all the senses to experience it is the priority.
Let the child tell you when the drawing is finished, do not interrupt!
• Gardner, Howard, Artful Scribbles, New York: Basic Books,
Inc., Publishers, 1980
• Kellogg, Rhoda, Analyzing Children's Art, Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield
Publishing Company, 1970
• Lowenfeld, Viktor, Creative and Mental Growth, 4th Edition. New York:
Macmillan Publishing Company, 1964
•Lowenfeld, Viktor, Your Child and His Art, New York: Macmillan
Publishing Company, 1963
• Striker, Susan, Young at Art, New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2001
literacy link:
representational drawing is the foundation for storytelling, listen to their stories, write them down, skip over words, have them fill in the words or story
Helpful comments from you while observing children's art:

how child's actions affect the picture
how color is used
type of line that is used
how work is different from previous work
the way a tool is being used
pressure of the hand on the tool
how the child feels while creating
Art in the childcare setting: safe access to art materials throughout the day.
What's going on in that noggin?
Left Brain:
Right Brain:
emotional perception
The whole brain lights up in gifted children, showing the use of the whole brain.
observe describe analyze interpret
express feelings with or without words
problem solving
critical thinking vocabulary more than one point of view collaborating confidence
Find a partner! One of you will draw and one of you will give feedback.
Questions: coloring books, copies, pre-cut models as part of daily activities?
Parents want to see those worksheets, those little projects...what can you say?
Can you teach a skill and then allow a child to use it creatively?
Ways to make this work for your space?
clean up
What can we teach with these types of comments/questions?
How can we bring in math, science, language, the world around us?
Older kids can have on-going projects.
Do you prefer premade?
"Through the entire process, each individual child still has the opportunity to choose. They control their own process, discovery, and ultimately product." Child Central Station

PBS kids
Hands On as We Grow
Uses senses to explore what art materials can do (e.g., scribbles with jumbo crayons, uses fingers to swirl finger paint or shaving cream, squeezes oily molding dough).
Takes pleasure in exploring the textures of art materials (e.g., finger paints with abandon, squeezes play dough through fingers and squeals).
Explores basic art tools and materials (those that do not demand great manual dexterity) to see how they work (e.g., scribbles with chalk, finger paints on a tray, makes crayon dots on paper).
Shows a preference for particular textures and art experiences (e.g., delights in squeezing slick doughs
age 1-2
age 2-3

Creates nonrepresentational art (e.g., makes random marks and scribbles on paper
using crayons, markers, pencil or chalk).

Uses art media to manage feelings (e.g., enjoys making holes in clay when frustrated,
scribbles on paper and part of the table top when excited).

Uses a variety of art tools to draw, paint, sculpt and make collages,
concentrating on the process rather than the product (e.g., scribble paints on butcher paper).

Shows a preference for "favorite" colors and styles of art
(e.g., child chooses orange markers or paint at nearly every artistic opportunity

Creates unplanned art, but may assign content to the image after the fact (e.g., when finished with a drawing, announces, "This is my kitty, Fluffy.").

Chooses colors and media that match his or her mood (e.g., may paint pictures in black and brown while dealing with divorcing parents).

Builds on knowledge of basic art techniques to make mobiles and assemblages (e.g., hangs leaves collected on a nature walk from a hanger).

Can describe what is pleasing about his or her own art (e.g., asks you to hang his or her art on the wall because it is a "happy" painting).

3-4 year olds
4-5 year olds

Begins to create art that is more realistic and includes some details of objects, animals or people.
Such details are typically remembered features that have made an impression
, but do not include all that is seen or known (e.g., draws a picture of a car with four wheels but no windows).

Uses art to reflect thoughts and feelings (e.g., transforms a list of favorite foods that his
teacher had recorded on paper into a mobile from which illustrations of these foods are hung).

Builds on knowledge of basic art techniques to do activities like printing, etching,
puppetry and weaving (e.g., joins in a preschool class project to weave ribbons into a back fence).

Can describe what is is pleasing about others' artwork and how the art makes him or her feel
(e.g., finds pleasure in the bright colors and bold lines of Andy Warhol's artwork viewed on a trip to a museum).

From Tinkerlab...sewing for toddlers
Rock and Roll painting
Easy finger painting
Connections and Prompts?
Let's talk about it!
age groups?
5 stages of drawing
scribble (2-4)
pres-schematic (3-7)
schematic (6-11)
transitional (9-?)
realism (12-?
consider these
directing children's art is like directing imaginative play...???
Using those scary TOOLS!
From Tinker lab:

1. Find real art!
2. Be open-minded!
3. Encourage careful looking!
4. Ask open ended questions.
5. Look for opportunity for related art-making.
Preschematic (AGES 4-6) :
The preschematic stage is announced by the appearance of circular images with lines which seem to suggest a human or animal figure. During this stage the schema (the visual idea) is developed. The drawings show what the child perceives as most important about the subject. There is little understanding of space - objects are placed in a haphazard way throughout the picture. The use of color is more emotional than logical.

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