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Object Pronouns

Spanish II - Unit 4 - Direct & Indirect Object Pronouns
by

Jennifer Ledford

on 8 October 2015

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Transcript of Object Pronouns

Object Pronouns:
Essential Questions
Direct
Object Pronouns
The object that directly
receives the action of the verb
is called the direct object.
The direct object can also be a person.
Anna hit
Bill
.
The direct object answers the
question
"what?"
or
"whom?"
with regard
to what the subject of the sentence is doing.
Anna hit Bill.
Anna hit whom?
Anna hit
Bill.
Often, it is desirable to replace
the name of the direct object
with a pronoun.
Paul bought the flowers.
He took the flowers home and
gave the flowers to his wife.
Paul bought the flowers.
He took them home and
gave them to his wife.
When the pronoun replaces the name of the direct object, use the following pronouns:
Direct Object Pronouns

me nos

te os

lo los
la las
In a statement or question with
one verb, the direct object pronoun
comes immediately

before the conjugated
verb.
Tengo la pluma. = I have the pen.
La tengo. = I have it
The pronoun (la) comes immediately before the verb (tengo).

Notice that if the subject of the sentence changes, this does
not
affect the direct object pronoun
Juan la tiene.

Juan tiene = John has
Juan tiene la pluma. = John has the pen.
Juan la tiene. = John has it.
María las tiene.

María tiene = Mary has
María tiene las plumas. = Mary has the pens.
María las tiene. = Mary has them.
Juan lo tiene.

Juan tiene = John has
Juan tiene el libro. = John has the book.
Juan lo tiene. = John has it
María los tiene.

María tiene = Mary has
María tiene los libros. = Mary has the books.
María los tiene. = Mary has them.
**Remember-when a sentence has two verbs, the first verb is conjugated and the second verb remains in the infinitive form.
poder
to be able

pagar
to pay

Puedo pagar diez pesos.
I am able to pay 10 pesos.

preferir
to prefer

hablar
to speak

Elena prefiere hablar español.
Elena prefers to speak Spanish.
In sentences with two verbs, there are two
options regarding the placement of the direct
object pronoun.

1.Place it immediately before the conjugated verb.
2.Attach it directly to the infinitive.
Lo
quiero ver.
I want to see it.

Lo
debemos comprar.
We should buy it.

María
nos
debe visitar.
Mary should visit us.

Juan
lo
necesita lavar.
John needs to wash it.
Quiero ver
lo
.
I want to see it.

Debemos comprar
lo
.
We should buy it.

María debe visitar
nos
.
Mary should visit us.

Juan necesita lavar
lo
.
John needs to wash it
These same rules apply for questions and negative statements
¿
Lo
debemos comprar?
¿Debemos comprar
lo
?
Should we buy it?

Juan no
lo
necesita lavar.
Juan no necesita lavar
lo
.
John doesn't need to wash it

SO - the indirect object (IO) tells us where the direct object (DO) is going.
He gives the
book
to María.

Where is the book going?
To María.

IO=María
The indirect object answers the question "To whom?" or "For whom?" the action of the verb is performed.
He gives María the book.
To whom does he give the book?

To María.

IO=María
Sentences that have an indirect object usually also have a direct object. Remember, the IO tells us where the DO is going. Notice how the following sentences just wouldn't work without a direct object.
He gives Maria...
the book, the pen, the diamonds, etc.
To identify the indirect object use these guidelines:

1.The IO tells us where the DO is going.
2.The IO answers the question "to whom?" or "for whom?" the action of the verb is performed.
When a pronoun takes the place of the name of the indirect object, use the following pronouns:
Indirect Object Pronouns

me nos

te os

le les
In a statement with one verb, the indirect object pronoun comes immediately before the conjugated verb.
Juan me compra un regalo.
John buys me a gift.
John buys a gift for me.

Juan te compra un regalo.
John buys you a gift.
John buys a gift for you.

Juan le compra un regalo.
John buys her a gift.
John buys a gift for her.
Juan nos compra un regalo.
John buys us a gift.
John buys a gift for us.

Juan os compra un regalo.
John buys you-all (familiar) a gift.
John buys a gift for you-all.

Juan les compra un regalo.
John buys them a gift.
John buys a gift for them.
The IO pronouns le and les present a special problem because they are ambiguous. That is, they can stand for different things.
le
to (for) him
to (for) her
to (for) you-formal

les
to (for) them
to (for) you-all-formal
The following sentences, while grammatically correct, are ambiguous:

Ella le escribe una carta.
Ella les escribe una carta.
Out of context, there is no way we can know the meaning:

Ella le escribe una carta.
She writes him a letter.
She writes her a letter.
She writes you (formal) a letter.

Ella les escribe una carta.
She writes them a letter.
She writes you-all (formal) a letter.
Since le and les can mean more than one thing, a prepositional phrase is often added to remove the ambiguity. The
prepositional phrase
will follow your verb.

Ella le escribe
a Juan
una carta.
Ella le escribe
a su hermana
una carta.
Ella le escribe
a usted
una carta.

Ella les escribe
a sus padres
una carta.
Ella les escribe
a ustedes
una carta.
Let's sum up the important points of this lesson:

•The IO tells us
where
the DO is going.
•The IO answers the question "
to whom
" or
"
for whom
."
•Sentences that have an IO usually also have a DO
•Sometimes the DO is not stated, but rather is implied, or understood.
•The IO pronouns are: me, te, le, nos, os, les.
•Place the pronoun before the conjugated verb.
•Think in phrases, do not translate word-for-word.
•Le and les are ambiguous.

Prepositional phrases
are often used for clarity and for emphasis.
Indirect & Direct
Object Pronouns
DO Pronouns IO Pronoun English Equivalent

me me me

te te you

lo, la le him, her, it, you

nos nos us

os os y'all

los, las les them, you all
When you have both a direct object pronoun and an indirect object pronoun in the same sentence,
the indirect object pronoun comes first
.
Ellos
me

los
dan.
They give them to me.
IO pronoun: me
DO pronoun: los

Ella
te

la
vende.
She sells it to you.
IO pronoun: te
DO pronoun: la
Whenever both pronouns begin with the letter "l" change the first pronoun to "se."

le lo = se lo
le la = se la
le los = se los
le las = se las
les lo = se lo
les la = se la
les los = se los
les las = se las
The reason for changing "le lo" to "se lo" is merely to avoid the tongue-twisting effect of two short consecutive words that begin with the letter "l". To demonstrate this, first quickly say "les las" and then quickly say "se las." See how much easier it is to say "se las?"
In negative sentences, the negative word comes directly before the first pronoun.

No se lo tengo.
I don't have it for you.

Nunca se los compro.
I never buy them for her.
Because the pronoun 'se' can have so many meanings, it is often helpful to clarify it by using a prepositional phrase.

Él se lo dice.
Ambiguous. He tells it to (whom?).

Él se lo dice a Juan.
He tells it to him. (to Juan)

Él se lo dice a María.
He tells it to her. (to María)

Él se lo dice a ella.
He tells it to her.
In sentences with two verbs, there are two options regarding the placement of the pronouns. Place them immediately before the conjugated verb or attach them directly to the infinitive.
She should explain it to me.
Ella me lo debe explicar.
Ella debe explicármelo.

I want to tell it to you.
Te lo quiero decir.
Quiero decírtelo.

You need to send it to them.
Se la necesitas enviar a ellos.
Necesitas enviársela a ellos.
Note that when attaching the pronouns to the infinitive, a written accent is also added to the final syllable of the infinitive. This preserves the sound of the infinitive.
When the pronouns are attached to the infinitive, make the sentence negative by placing the negative word directly before the conjugated verb.
Ella debe explicármelo.
Ella no debe explicármelo.

Quiero decírtelo.
No quiero decírtelo.

Necesitas enviársela a ellos.
No necesitas enviársela a ellos.

When the pronouns come before the conjugated verb, make the sentence negative by placing the negative word directly before the pronouns.
Ella me lo debe explicar.
Ella no me lo debe explicar.

Te lo quiero decir.
No te lo quiero decir.

Se la necesitas enviar a ellos.
No se la necesitas enviar a ellos.

What do direct & indirect object pronouns communicate to the listener(s)?
What do direct & indirect object pronouns imply?
Where are direct & indirect object pronouns placed?
How can you use indirect and direct object pronouns together?
What are the similarities and differences between direct and indirect object pronouns?
What are the similarities and differences between direct and indirect object pronouns in Spanish and in my native language?
Morgan hit the
ball
.
The

ball

receives

the

direct

action

of the verb "hit".
Amanda read the
book
.
The book receives the direct action of the verb "read".
Ms. Ledford popped the
balloon
.
The balloon receives the direct action of the verb popped.
Unfortunately for Bill, he is the direct object of the verb "hit".
Morgan hit the ball.
Morgan hit what?
Morgan hit the
ball.
Indirect Object Pronouns
He buys me flowers.
For whom does he buy the flowers?

For me.

IO=me
He buys me . . .
flowers, candy, an ironing board, etc.
You can't le lo
The prepositional phrase simply clarifies "to" or "for" whom the action is being performed.

In this case "a" means "to" or "for".

Ex:
Ella les da un regalo.
[She gives them a gift. "Them" is ambiguous.]

Ella les da a sus padres un regalo.
[She gives them - her parents - a
gift. The prepositional phrase clarifies WHO the gift is FOR.]
Full transcript