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Summary of Political Grid -Russia and China Update

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Nadia Shaarawi

on 13 October 2016

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Transcript of Summary of Political Grid -Russia and China Update

Mexico- 1917 constitution
Head Of State
United Kingdom- Unwritten Constitution
Russia- 1993 constitution
Summary of Political Grid
China- Communist revolution in 1949
Iran- 1979 constitution and revolution
Head of Govt
Queen Elizabeth II

David Cameron

Indirect Election
Upper House
Lower House
Law and Change
Unwritten constitution
Parliamentary system
unitary with devolution
common law
no judicial review
House of commons
Recent Election: 2015-
Conservatives (330)
Head of State And Govt.
Pena Nieto


( earned 39.2% of votes)
Upper House
SMD Plurality
House of lords
2 seats SMD Plurality per 32s states , 3rd seat is Proportional representation with 2%
Lower house
Chamber of Deputies
200Party list/300 SMD plurality
2% threshold
Law and Change
31 states in
. District
judicial review
code law
Recent Election: 2015-PRI
President Putin:
Majority Run-off Election
Head of State
Prime Min. Medvedev
Head Of Govt.
Electoral Methods
2 members selected from each of the 83 regions
1 member chosen from the regional government
1 member chosen from regional legislation
Federation Council

Party list with 7% threshold
2016- will return to a mixed SMD and party list system
Law and Change:

Federal system
Code Law
Judicial Review
Dominant Party: United Russia (238
President Xi
Indirect Election
Chosen by national peoples congress
Law and Change:

Head of State
Prime Minister Li

Chosen by national peoples congress
Head Of Govt.
National Peoples Congress
Indirect Election
CCP controlled
chosen by Provincial peoples congress
Unitary State
code law

One Party State: China Communist Party (CCP)
Recent Election: 2015-All Progressive Congress (APC)
Law and Change:

President Buhari
All Progressives Congress
25% in two thirds of Nigeria's 36 states
Head of State
Head Of Govt.
SMD Plurality
each state has three senator
Upper House
House of Representatives
APC Controlled
SMD Plurality
Allotted by population
Lower House
Federal Republic
Presidential system
Common and Sharia Law
Judicial Review
Head of State
Head Of Govt.
Law and Change:

Recent Election: 2012- Conservatives
Supreme Leader Khamenei
appointed for life by Assembly of Experts
President Rouhani
Majority run off election

Consultative Assembly
Run-off Elections
Conservative Controlled
single and multimember constituency
Theocratic Republic
Sharia Law
no judicial review
Plurality Election
One with the most vote wins (winner takes all)
Majority run off election
Winner MUST HAVE 50%+1 votes

If not,run off election takes place between top two parties

Party list/Proportional rep
1. Lists candidates ranked in order of importance

2. Voters vote for parties

3. Seats in legislature are allocated to each party in proportion to the # of votes

4. Parties have to cross threshold ( a set min. voter percentage)
Single Member District
One person represents the district
UK (house of commons),
Nigeria (Senate and house of rep.
Leads to two major parties where they are both catch all (Duverger's law)
UK (House of commons),
Mexico ( Head of state +Gov., Senate and chamber of deputies)
Nigeria (Senate and house of rep.),
Russia (Head of state)
Iran (Head of Government and mM)
If majority is not reached, two parties usually
agree to a coalition where they work with each
Mexico (legislative)
Russia (Duma)
Conservatives (Tories)
"Natural party of government"

Pragmatic(flexible) and elitist
Past PMs:
Thatcher (1979-1990)

John Major (1990-1997)

David Cameron (2010-present)

Identified with democratization of Uk
also ID'd as origins of collectivist consensus
Division in 1990s
Traditional wing
Thaterite Wing
Traditional Wing

(One nation tories)
noblesse oblige
Supports EU
Thatcherite Wing

Strict conservatives
Rightest reforms
Cut taxes
Cut social welfare programs
national defense ('82 war w/ Argentina for faulkands)
Tough on labour unions ('84 coal miner union success)
Securing British interests internationally
Neoliberal ec.
policies to stem
economic decline
Close Political relationship
with Pres. Ronald Reagan
Controversial policies such as poll tax
and opposition to EU led to divisions in
the party and eventually her resignation
Tony Blair 1997-2007
Promoted New labour/ "third way"
Moved from labour from left to center
New deal (welfare to work)
repealed clause 4 (clause in labor party's constitution that believed in nationalization of industry
center right on security and immigration (7/7)
Key issues:
Iraq policy (sided with Bush)
Northern Ireland (Good Friday Agreement)
devolution to Scotland and Wales
dealt with conservative issues such as law and order
EU integration
7/7/05- 4 british attack attack on underground and buses
Constitutional reform

European convention on human rights
House of lords act
supreme court reform act
Direct election for londons Mayor
House of lords act- Reduced # of hereditary peers to 92
Supreme court reform act- Implementing supreme court in Britain
David Cameron:2010-today
College tuition
all challenges went into conservatives favor
Reasoning for Nick Clegg Departure
Summer 2011 youth riots- divide between two parties over why it happened
Murdoch scandal- phone-hacking into civilians voicemails
EU union crisis
2014 scottish referendum
Lib. Dem and Tories
Coalition challenges:
Labour party
Tony Blair (1997-2007)
Gordon Brown (2007-2010)
Past PMs:
1950's and 1960's: Largely working class party

Divisions over Iraq

1960-1980's: Internal divisions over : 1. Welfare state
2. Power of Unions
3. Nuclear disarment

Past/current Leaders:
Ed Miliband (resigned 2015)
More towards Old labour
Jeremy Corbin (current leader)
Old labour- More towards socialism and Equality

New Labor- More catch all and moving more towards neoliberalism
Liberal Democrats
Support spread evenly

FPTP hurts popularity

Mixture of Classic liberalism and Social liberalism:
Emphasis on ind. Freedom
However, emphasis on social equality
Main Leader

Nick Clegg
Supporters of:
Opposed to:
Iraq War
Other Political Participation
Regional Parties
Scotland-SNP-Nikola Sturgeon as leader
N. Ireland- Sinn Fein
Welsh-Plaid Cymru
UKIP: Anti-Eu, Populist, Nigel Farage

BNP: Far right, extreme nationalism

Interest groups:
TUC- Labour
CBI- Conservatives
QUANGOS: Funded by state, but govern autonomously

Politburo Standing Committee (PSC)
Top political leadership in china

the Governing cabinent

General secretary is head of standing Committee as well has top of the party

Top policy making body in China ( in actuality, not in theory)
Central Military Commission
Retain tight control over armed forces

Reports directly to Politburo

Chaired by China's General Secretary

Head of Defense
Leading Small groups
Consider policy options

make recommendations to standing committee

technocrats and trained experts
25 members
Central Committee
Carries out ongoing the ongoing approval and endorsement of the national party between its sessions
manages day to day work of Politburo Standing Committee

seeks implementation of Politburo committee decisions and policy

administrative arm
Central Commission for the Inspection of Discipline
maintain party loyalty

use of discipline

focus on investigating
National Party Congress

Meet every 5 years
Parallel to National Peoples Congress
no real policy-making is done

Venue for announcing changes in policy and leadership
Provincial Level Party Congresses and Commitees
Elected members from local party congresses

each province and autonomous region in China has a party congress
Local level Party Congresses
Direct elections of local party congresses

elections first allowed under rulership of Den Xiaoping

Committees in cities, countries, and towns

ceremonial role
Various departments :
ex.) propaganda dept.
Top political policy making body
each member of Politburo responsible for a specific set of policy areas
these policy areas roughly correspond to the ministerial portfolio of State Council
Head of Politburo Standing Committee

Top of CP

President of PRC

Head of central commission

General Secretary

retirement ages
2 five year terms
Central Party organizations and departments
bureaucratic organizational piece of party

ex.) propaganda dept.
Censorship of the internet and firewalls
Chinese Communist Party
Supreme People's Court
Top court of the state

lacking independence

court powers are subordinate to state and Communist Party goals

economic liberalization has caused greater judicial autonomy

NPC Standing Committee

Vice President
President: Currently Xi Jinping

Head of state

Head of the Executive branch

has become normalized
(setting retirement ages)

head of central military commission

Power comes from being General Secretary
Supreme People's Procuratorate
deal with both criminal and civil cases at the provincial, country and district level
Local Level Procuatorate
Higher Provincial Courts
Intermediate Courts (cities)
Grassroots Courts
National People's Congresses
Constitutionally is highest organ of state power in China

heart of chinese legislature

meet annually

largely ceremonial

in actuality has little power
Provincial People's Congresses
Local People's Congresses

only place where the civilians are able to hold elections
Vice Premiers
State Council (premier, Vice premiers, State, Councilors, Ministers)
Central Government Ministries, Commissions, Bureaus
Provincial People's Governments
Local People's Congresses (cities, counties, townships)
Vice President: Li Yuanchao

Head of Government


member of standing committee

head of state council

China's Cabinet

Oversees bureaus and ministries
President is elected by National peoples congress
Directed by premier

less power in certain regions and ministries than others
state heads that work along side members local peoples

part of organizational parallelism
No judicial review

Code Law

President (Head of State)
two consecutive six year terms
issues decrees that have force of law
head of security and state council
foreign policy
appoints PM with Duma's consent
appoints heads of federal superdistricts
may dissolve the duma
commander in chief
Controls power ministries and FSB
Majority run-off vote
Prime Minister (Head of Government
Appointed by president with consent of Duma
Deals with domestic economic and social policy
supervises ministries not under presidential control
largely chosen for loyalty to president
prior to appointment of Putin, PMs had been weak figures
formulate specific policy options and administer the machinery of government
day-to-day administeration of government
President may dismiss government
lower house
chosen by party list vote with a 7% threshold
formally part SMD plurality vote and part party list with a 5% vote
will go back to half SMD plurality vote
passes bills
may vote no confidence
two thirds vote overrides presidential veto
initiates and adopts federal laws that also must be passed in Federation council
Federation Council
Two members indirectly selected from each of the 83 regions of federation
must approve bills dealing with taxation and budget
foreign policy
judicial confirmations
power to veto Duma legislation
Power to override presidential veto
weak rule of law , limited independence
only organ that has right to exercise justice
appointed by president with consent of federation council
Constitutional Court: 19 justices

power of judicial review
remains as a very weak institution
Supreme court:
serves as final court of appeals in criminal and civil cases
China's national state government
Soviet Political System- 1917-1991
Federal republic but in practice a unitary state

soviet federalism as a façade of democracy

Democratic centralism meant lower organs of government were always subordinate to higher bodies
headed by politburo

decision making body

held important seats in council of ministers and presidium of Supreme soviet

Authoritarian democratic centralism with power vested in nomenklatura
Executive Structure
Headed by USSR Council of Ministers and bureaucracy
members of CPSU central committee
directly managed the Soviet economy through GOSPLAN
ran country on day-to-day basis
Implemented party decisions
Parliamentary structure
Supreme soviet was bicameral
Council of Union
Council of nationalities
met twice a year
in between sessions presidium exercised power through its head-- the chairman who was Soviet head of state
Corporatist representation of workers
fraud, violence, rewards to maintain power
Supporters: rural, less educated, older
members in party who want change and reform

Created in 1930 as a splinter party

Opposed to anticlercalism
market driven economy
electoral fraud and economic downturn gave popularity to the party as opposed to the PRI
supporters: urban, middle/upper class, northerners, private business supporters
Past leaders:
Vicente Fox (2000)
Calderon (2006
1980 Began as reformist wing of PRI
Socialist and leftist party
Supporters: working class, more politically active, from urban or small towns, more educated, Southern
Past leaders:

Andres Obrador- close win in 2006 election

Major asset-- Cardenas' son
Pluralty vote- one six year term (sexeno)
issue decrees(similar to Russia and China)
dedazo (tapping of successor)- ended during Zedillos administration
historically powerful institution
economic reforms-reduced power
Recruited by connections

president uses bureaucracy as huge employment base

advancement exists from one sexenio to another

Key Supranational Organizations:

used to go against U.S strength
Not apart of: NATO, G-8, EU
Years of Fundamental Change
1917- Coup d’état after subsequent civil war against anti-Communist forces.

1993- constitution drafted


Crackdown on Chechens
Putin rebuilding the economy
domestic stability
Restoration of Russia's international status
Frustrated legitimacy
declining health
Shock therapy creating hyperinflation
Oppression of journalists
Human rights violations in Chechnya
anti-gay laws
Key Supranational Organizations
Hurt Legitimacy:

Fundamental changes
1949: Communist forces entered Beijing unopposed and established the Peoples Republic of China (PRC)
1978: While private businesses and relations with foreign capitalist countries were established, civilians called on more political reforms and expressed frustrations with their lack of public participation.
Assembly of Experts
determining succession of supreme leader
Expediency Counci
resolve legislative issues when the Majlis and the council of guardians disagree
Guardian Council
determines whether legislation both constitutional and faithful to islamic law
Key Supranational organizations:
is NOT a part of WTO
Fundamental Change
1979: Islamic revolution- national referendum replaced monarchy with national republic
2009- Green Revolution disbelief in legitimacy of elections
Key Supranational Organizations
Key Fundamental Changes
1917 constitution
1980's- oil bust reforms cut the number of parastatals and many are privately owned
2000-PRI turned over power to Vicente Fox's party PAN

Supranational Organizations:

Fundamental Changes
1960's: collectivist consensus

70's Thatcherism

90's: Tony Blair
Key Supranational Organizations:
Key Years of Fundamental Change
Parliamentary system in 1960: first republic
first military regime
1979-1983: 2nd republic
second military regime
parliamentary to presidential system
clientalism and prebendalism
new electoral system
Buhari is toppled by Babangida
1993-third republic
1993-1999- third public regime
third republic aborted election of 1993
APC wins presidency
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