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Revision for OCR GCSE PE - Now complete!

Paul Atkinson

on 15 April 2014

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Transcript of Copy of OCR GCSE PE

GCSE PE Revision
Risk Assessment in Physical Activity
3 types
Involuntary - works on its own - lungs
Cardiac - The heeart
Voluntary - The important ones - They are the ones you use in sport
These produce movement by contracting and relaxing
One contracts (prime mover) the other relaxes (agonist)
Short term boost of power
like sprinting - works without oxygen, uses squirts of chemicals to fuel the movement
Long term repititive movement
Uses a constant supply of oxygen to fuel movement
Marathon Running
The jobs of the skeleton
Movement - essesntial for sport
Protection - rib cage, skull etc
Blood production
Mineral storage
A place where 2 or more bones meet.
Often creates movement like the knee.
Shoulder and Hip
Ball and socket
Great range of movement
Knee and elbow
Hinge joint
Movement in one plain only
Pivot joint
Only rotates
Joints are held together by LIGAMENTS
The shock absorber between bones is CARTILAGE
Bones attached to muscle by TENDONS
These are all made soft tissue,
Types of movement
Flexion - bendtowards body
Extention - bends away from body
Rotation - swivel of the joint
Abduction - Move away from body
Adduction - Move towards body
Mental Preparation
This is getting yourself ready for sport.
There are different techniques to do this
Massage muscles
Calm Music
Mental Rehearsal
Picturing how a skill look when performed well
Bobsleigh drivers do this by mental driving down the track
Mind free of distraction
Being in the zone
2 Types
Self motivated
Play because you enjoy it
To keep fit
Have friends
Wayne Rooney
Outside personal drive
Chris Eubank
Goal Setting
Gives a player something to aim for.
Targets need to follow SMARTER principle.
Outcome Goal
"I want to win the cup"

Process Goal
"I want to improve my shooting technique in netball"
The amount or range at a joint
Used in: Gymnastic, Goalkeeping, Diving
Who: Beth Tweddle, Tom Daly, Shay Given
Test: Sit and Reach
How quickly a performer can move body parts
Used: Football, Rugby, Table Tennis, Cricket, Tennis
Who: Theo Walcot, Rafa Nadal, James Anderson
Test: 20m Sprint
Control over movement and linking different movements together effectively
Used: Tennis, Boxing, Table tennis, netball,cricket
Who: Federer, Maywether, Collingwood
Test: Cup stacking
Circulatory and Respiratory System
Stroke volume
Heart rate
Cardiac Output
This bit of time
Benefits of exercise on cv system
Stronger cardiac muscle (heart)
Increased oxygen debt tolerance
Increased stroke volume
Increased cardiac output
Lower resting heartrate
You get fitter
Inputs are all the bits of info going into you brain
Where is the defender?
Who can I pass to?
Making the decision to pass or shoot
Decision based on previous experience and training
Physically doing what you have decided to do
Did it work.
This can be knowledge of result
Did I score - yes
Or knowledge of performance
Did I play well, What was my sommersaullt like?
Knowledge of results usually comes INTRINSICALLY.

You know if you scored or not
Knowledge of performance can be EXTRINSIC usually from your coach or manager but can be INTRINSIC to.
Feedback video
Learning a skill
We learn skills by
Trial and Error
Role Models
Social Reason for Participation
or why people do sport
An increase in the amount of leisure time people have has led to them doing more sport
Shorter working week = People have more time to do things
Technological Advances = People can do things quicker freeing up more leisure time for them
Early retirement = Older people don't work much giving them free time to fill
Unemployment = People without jobs get money off sport and have plenty of free time
People do sport for one of 3 main reasons

Health - They need to get fit to stay healthy

Leisure - They enjoy doing it

Vocation - It's their job. Professional players, coaches or administrators ( and the odd PE Teacher)
Schools promote sport by
Having compulsory Pe lessons for all 5-16 year old
Running examination courses in PE
Having extra curricular clubs and teams
Establishing links with local clubs
Having a Schools Sports Co-ordinator
Social Background
The positive and negative influences on participation
Peer group
Limited for some, depends on where you live
Much improved facillities over the years
Far mor older people doing sport
Some young people stopped from doing certain things
Still some accessability issues
Loads of opprtunitities and funding as well as Special Olympics
playing fields sold off, private schools have unfair advantage
NC pushes at least 2 hrs PE a week for all
Moderate climate like the UK allows for most sports to be played
Some sports are difficult to do in the UK - Skiing etc.
People often carry on family sporting traditions
Some famillies can be unsupportive
Some sports still not considered appropriate for women e.g boxing
Women now treated as equals in most sports e.e Wimbledon prize money noe the same.
Pro athletes constaantly under the microscope of the media
Global media helps promote sport which brings money in that can be redistribiuted to grass roots
Friends can encourage you to take part in sport
It takes strength of character to do your own thing
Politicians can use sport to promote their own agenda e.g Boycotts of events
Government can give substantial assistance to sports e.g Sport England
Sport is often a way out for those in difficult situations
When struggling to feed and house yourself, sport is often one of the last things on your agenda
A great way of getting lots of money into a sport
Sponsors often have too much control, take the best tickets and can influence scheduling of sport
Sport boycott of South Africa help end apartheid
Some cultures stop women from competing in sport
Local and National Provision
Do adequate facillities exist?
Who provides them?
Are people using the facillities?
Who is helping them to use them?
Local Authority

Private Enterprise

Private/voluntary clubs and associations
Council run facillities
Often free or cheap
standard of faciliities variable
Lloyds Park
West Wickham Pool
Skate parks
Run for and by members
Non profit making
can get grants to improve facillities
Coney Hall Football Club
Addiscombe Cricket Club
Croydon Rugby Club
Run for profit
Usually excellent facillities
David Lloyd Centres
Virgin Active Clubs
Sport England
Government funded
Encourages sport and recreation in England
Provides some facillities - Centres of Excellence e.g Crystal Palace sports centre
Helps Elite athletes
Gives out Lottery Funding for Sport
Gives out other grants
Skeletal System
Muscular System
Improved Recovery Rate
Components of fitness
Cardio Vascular Endurance
The capacity of the heart and lungs to meet the bodies demand for oxygen over a period of time. Also called stamina
Used in: Distance running, football, rugby, swimming, Cycling, any sport the last a long period of time
Who: Paula Radcliff, Owen Hargreaves, Rebecca Adlington, Chris Hoy
Test: Multistage fitness test (Bleep Test), Cooper run
Muscular Endurance
The ability of the muscles to perform repeatedly over a long period without becoming tired
Used in: Rock climbing, Cycling, rugby, swimming, rowing
Who: Sir Steve Redgrave, Bradley Wiggins, Mike Tindall
Test: Press ups/sit ups in a minute, ski jump
The maximum force a muscle or group muscles can exert in one contraction. Power is speed added tostrength
What: Weight Lifting, Boxing, rugby
Who: David Haye, Andrew Sheridan
Test: Standing Long Jump, Seargent Jump
Principle of training
Principles that govern the way in which the body responds to exercise
Purpopse of exercise
To lose weight
To feel good about themselves
To recover from injury
Warm ups
Physically preapring the body for exercise
Pulse gradually raised
Joint flexibility addressed
Stretching of muscle, this could be dynamic (moving) or static
Performer should be mentally focused
Cool down
Allowing the pulse rate to gradulally return to resting
Helps replace oxygen debt
Reduces lactic acid build up
Done through long static stretches
FITT Principle
F - Frequency - The number of session a week can vary
I - Intensity - How hard the session is can vary
T - Time - The length of the session can vary
T - Type - The different training methods can vary
Key words
Overload - Improving your physical performance by forcing your body to work beyond its limits
Specificity - Training must be specific ot relavany for the activity intended e.g divers trainers on the trampolines
Progression - all training must be geared towards a target or goal that requires constant improvement to achieve.
Reversibility -For every week of training missed you lose the equivelant of three week of training.
Methods of training
The different way tou can train
Circuit Training
Based on the completion of a series of varying stations
Can be targeted towards specific, sports or component of fitness
Continuous Training
Training AEROBICALLY over a longer period with no breaks
e.g Aerobic, swimming, cycling
Improve CV Endurance
Speedplay, Similar to contiuous but included ANAEROBIC short bursts to improve speed
Interval training
Periods of activity follwed by rest. Timing of training and rests can be altered to allow for progression e.g swimming training
Relevant to all sports. Movement around a joint to increase the range of movement.
Weight Training
Like circuit traing but aimed mostly add Muscular strength, power and endurance.
Often done in gyms
Effects of training
Short Term
Sweating to remove heat from body
Muscle increase in temperature
Pulse rate increase so body meets oxygen demand of muscles
Breathing rate increased to deliver more oxygen to the bloodstream
Long Term
CV system works far more effeciently
The Heart can pump more blood out in one pump increasing the amount of oxygen sent around the body
Lower resting rate
Increases VO2 max. MOre oxygen can be sent around the body
Muscles get bigger, stronger and tire less quickly
Rate of recovery lessens
Lose weight by burning off excess fat
Prevention of Injury
Appropriate level of competition
e.g age groups in rugby, weight in judo, no male/female football after age 11
Clothing and footwear
wear the right clothing
e.g cycling shorts, football boots
Correct technique
doing something the right way can stop you getting injured
e.g doing the high jump or pole vault
Knowing safety procedures
How events are organised and the sports safety procedures e.g javelin
Lifting and Carrying
Often whilst training equipment needs moving. Caution is needed
e.g putting up table tennis tables
Personal Protective equipment
essential wear for some sport
e.g shinpads, gum shields, ski helmets
Rules and Laws
Rules are there to help you stay safe
e.g tackling with studs up or from behind
Warm up/ Cool down
Body preparation is essential
Potential Hazards
The gym and sports hall
Dirty floor
Equipment left out
Broken equipment
Inappropriate use
Hard Court Areas
Slippery surface
Broken fence
wobbly posts
projecting sockets
windows not protects
Pools of water
Outdoor activities
Extreme conditions
Playing Fields
Dog poo
long grass
broken glass
rugby posts not padded
corner flags not flexible
frozen pitch
Swimming pool
Slippery surfaces
Inappropriate use
Broken diving board
This is all common sense
Good luck

40% of final grade
B451 - 60min exam = 20%
B453 - 60min exam = 20%
Friday 16th May 2014

GCSE PE Revision
Full transcript