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Transcript of CHINESE LITERATURE
-third largest country in the world
in terms of area and population. China shares a land border of about 21, 260 km (13,210mi) with 14 other Countries: North Korea
Vietnam Official name of China:
- People's Republic of China
( Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo) -established in 1949 -derived from the Qin (Ch'in) dynasty (221-206 B.C) -use the name Zhonggua ( Chung-kou; Middle Country) which originated with the early Chinese concept that China was in the Middle of the World -divided into 23 provinces (including Taiwan)
-5 autonomous border regions
-provinces and autonomous regions are usually grouped into six large administrative regions China's written history began during the Shang dynasty
(c. 1600- c. 1027 B.C - ruled by series of dynasties until 1912 1921- Chinese Communist party was founded
1926 - long civil war between the ruling nationalists or Kuomintang (Chiang Kaishek) and the Communist (Mao Zedong) began 1949 - Communist took over the mainland, establishing the People's Republic of China.
The United Nations recognized Taiwan as the Legitimate government of China until 1971. 1979 - United States recognized the legitimacy of the People's Republic, and the diplomatic relations between the two nations were established. - 92% Han Chinese
- about 8 % of some 60 other ethnic groups, the largest being Huis, Mongols, Uighurs, Zhuangs (Chuangs), Yis, Tibetans, Miasos, Manchus, Buyis (Puyis), and Koreans LANGUAGES - classified into four major linguistics families * Indo -Europian * Sino - Tibetan * Ural - Altaic * Mon - Khmer Tibetan family - spoken about two-thirds of China's population. Mandarin Beijing - China's nationaL spoken language RELIGION - most chinese also believed in ancestor worship and Confucianism, a system of social and political values Tibetan Buddhism - was the Religion of the Mongols and the Tibetans 1949 - under the communist government, the practice of religion was discouraged, although freedom to believe in religion was guaranteed under the constitution of 1954. During the Cultural Revolution of the mid-1960's religious institutions were destroyed, but since 1978 the government has become more tolerant of religious observance. During the 1950's and early 1960's educational policy was directed toward producing college and secondary school graduates who were politically and technically qualified. Students were required to spend half of their school hours on academic subjects and the other half learning practical skills in factories and fields. -During the Cultural Revolution the emphasis was on political indoctrination in revolutionary ideology
-Workers, peasants, and soldiers were invited to lecture in universities, and university students were selected on the basis of work performance and party loyalty. 1977 - the educational policies of the Cultural Revolution were abandoned.
1985 - entrance examinations were introduced, and tuition for higher education was reinstituted After the 1989 democracy demonstrations, students were required to complete a year of political education before entering college, and restrictions were imposed on study abroad.
1988 - 99% of school aged children were enrolled in primary schools. China is a Communist state, with all authority resting in the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). -six institutions since the Communist reorganized the national government in 1949. The first -the first provisional Constitution (1949) was superseded by the 1954 constitution adopted by the first National People's Congress (NPC)
-the 1975 constitution adopted by the Fourth NPC
-the 1978 constitution adopted by the Fifth NPC
-the 1982 constitution adopted by the Sixth NPC
-the 1993 constitution adopted by the Eight NPC NPC - is the highest organ of state power.
- it can amend the constitution, elect to or remove from office the highest state dignitaries, and decide on the economic plan.
- elects a Standing Committee, who's chairman is equivalent to the head of state.
- composed of deputies elected to 5-year term.
-Qiao Shi (Ch'iao Shih) - Eight NPC Chairman (1993) State Council - highest administrative organ headed by a premier and several vice-premiers.
-Consists of more than 30 ministries and committees De facto is held by the CCP which had 50.32 million members in 1991 The Thirteenth Party Congress continued a transfer of power to younger leaders begun in 1985 by Deng Xiaoping ( Teng Hsia-p'ing). The Fourteenth Party Congress (1992) endorsed accelerated economic reforms while maintaining a hard-line stance against dissent. THE FIRST SAGE
OF CHINA Confucious (Kung Fu-tzu) , 551 479 B.C
-the Chinese sage who founded the Confucianism
- born of a poor but aristocratic family in the state of Lu, he was an orphaned at an earl age.
- he held several minor government post
- in later years he advanced to become minister of justice in
his home state.
- he was best known as a teacher.
- he had taught a total of disciples who carried on his teaching.
- died at age of 72 Confucious as:
- an educator
- a statesman
- a philosopher
- a traditionalist
- the founder of Chinese Literature " He who does not recognize the existence of a Divine Law cannot be a superior man." "You have not yet learned how to serve man well, how can I teach you to serve the spirit?" or " You do not yet know much about life, how can I teach you to serve the spirits?" "You do not yet know much about life, how can I teach you about death?" or 1. Book of Changes
- made up of geometrical combination of six lines plus sixty-four explanatory essays.
- used by the Chinese for divination, and it was supposed by some to present a secret and profound philosophy but no key has been found. 2. Book of Ceremonies
- this voluminous work on etiquette was re-edited about 100 B. C. by the two Tai cousins 3. Book of Historical Documents
- this is a formulation of the political ideas and the fundamentals of good government. 4. Book of Poetry
- a selected of 305 best poems
- the book stresses the cherishing of thoughts and sentiments of forebears.
- some of the poems are odes written for various occasion, some are lyric.
- the book is valuable for insights into the manners and customs of the ancient Chinese 5. Book of Spring and Autumn
- its praises were as stimulating as spring, while its censures were as autumn.
- it has little philosophical content, but it is noteworthy for a history of Confucious' native province of Lu from 722 to 484 B.C. MANG
- born in the same province that had been the birthplace of Confucious
- at an early age showed an aptitude for mimicry CONFUCIANISM
-the philosophical system developed on the teaching of confucious, dominated chinese sociopolitical life for most of Chinese history, and largely influenced the cultures of Korea, Japan and Indochina. Confucian school
- functioned as a recruiting ground for government positions, which were filled by those scoring highest on examinations in the Confucian classics.
- it also blended with popular and imported religions and became the vehicle for articulating chinese mores to peasants. Doctrine
-Confucianism combines a political theory and a theory of human nature to yeild a dao (tao)- a prescriptive doctrine or way.
- the political theory starts with a doctrine of political authority from heaven's command.