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Cell Structure/Function: Macromolecules

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by

Susie Larson

on 17 November 2015

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Transcript of Cell Structure/Function: Macromolecules

Cell Structure
& Function

The Role of
Enzymes
in Biochemical Processes
Enzymes are a
common
and essential part of all body systems. They are
coded for
and
constructed by cells
, with each cell making different enzymes
specific to the cell's function
, as well as enzymes common to all or most cells.
Biochemical pathways
A series of chemical reactions is called a biochemical pathway. Enzymes help chemical reactions progress in the body.
Example: Enzyme for sucrose (a) attaches to sucrose (b) stretching the bonds (c) and break the two elements apart (glucose & fructose) to be released on their own (d).
Then, the enzyme is used again.
What are the structures and functions of the four major macromolecules?
what is a Macromolecule?
"Macro" mean
LARGE SCALE.


macromolecule
is a molecule containing a
very large number
of atoms, such as
the 4 major macromolecules: protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrates, and lipids.
how do Monomers relate to macomolecules
"Mono"
means
single.
A monomer is a single molecule that can be
bonded
to other identical molecules to
form a polymer, or macromolecule
.
Polymers
"Poly"
means
many
.
A Polymer is made up of
MANY monomers!
The word
polymer
and
macromolecule
mean the
SAME THING
. You can use one or the other and
mean the same thing
.
Organic
Compounds
Organic means
"living"
compounds that contain
bonds
between
carbon
atoms
Carbon "bonds" with many things to make
life's molecules
Carbon
can bond with many elements, including
hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen
to form the molecules of life.
All
Living
Organisms are made of...
molecules that consist of
carbon
along with
hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen.
All Living things are a combination of at least one or more of the following Primary Macromolecules....
Macromolecule #1: Carbohydrates
Examples:
dried fruit, cereals, crackers, cakes, flours, jams, preserves, bread products, potato products....
Monomer:
monosaccharide
Function:
provides energy
Structure looks like:
house

Macromolecule #2: Lipids
Ex
amples:
milk, cheese, oils, butter, peanut oil
Monomer:
fatty acids
Function:
Long term energy storage and Insulation Layer that keeps heat in or out
Structure:
looks sort of like comb
Macromolecule #3: Proteins
Examples:
turkey, beans, milk, fish,
cheese, steak, lobster
Monomer:
amino acid
Structure:
looks like pearl necklace
Functions:
Structure - all living things are made by proteins - nose, skin, eyes, etc
Metabolism - speeds up chemical reactions
Macromolecule #4: Nucleic Acids
Examples:
RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) &
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
Monomer:
nucleotides
Structure:
looks like spiral staircase
Functions:
Heredity - traits and genes are passed down by our parents


DNA RNA
Full transcript