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Stavonna Bello

on 9 January 2014

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Transcript of DEFENSE POLICY

Key Issues of Defense Policy
Afghanistan--> the mission is to support the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, support the growth and capacity of Afghan National Security Forces, and enact improvements in governance and socio-economic development.
Sexual Assault Prevention--> Eliminating sexual assault within the U.S. military is one of the Defense Departments highest priorities. In order to correct the issues that effect all men and women of service the Defense Department continually strives to improve prevention and response programs.
CyberSecurity--> The Defense Department named cyberspace a new domain for warfare in 2011. The U.S. Cyber Command, the services, U.S. Partners and allies are working to make that environment suitable for military command and control.
Each Platforms of the Two Major Parties on the Defense Policy
Democratic Party on Defense Policy--> This party expresses the need to equip military for new threats and missions, encourage military careers with better pay and benefits, prepare the military with advanced military technology, and develop a limited missile defense system. The belief that the military must evolve in order to be prepared for new threats is expressed, also the need to increase military pay and reform the military retirement system and improve housing, healthcare, and child care benefits. It is also wished to cut stock-piles of weapons of mass destruction, stopping construction and preventing them from falling into the wrong hands.
Republican Party on Defense Policy--> This party expresses the need to affirm military culture and rebuild morale, and that the U.S. needs a comprehensive military defense system, to eliminate as many nuclear weapons as possible, and to restore the strength of the defense industry.

To whom are they contributing?
The Council for a Livable World contributed solely to the Democratic Party ($37,321), the Nuclear Threat Initiative contributed 94% of funds (total being ($8,450) and the remaining 6% to the Republican Party, while the L-3 Communications group contributed to both the Democrats and Republicans for a total of $151,359.

What do the Interest Groups Want?
Council for a Livable World--> this interest group is dedicated to reducing the danger of nuclear weapons and increasing national security.Their mission is to advocate for sensible national security policies.
Nuclear Threat Initiative--> this interest group has the mission of strengthening global security by reducing the risk of use and preventing the spread of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons and to build the trust and security that are preconditions to the ultimate fulfillment of the Non-Proliferation Treaty's goals and ambitions.
L-3 Communications--> they want to supply command and control, communications, intelligence, surveillance and renaissance systems and products, avionics, ocean products, training devices and services instrumentation, space, and navigation products for the Department of Defense.

In what ways are the groups trying to influence the policy making process?
-Council for a Livable World--> their strategies to further influence the policy making process includes ratifying the new Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, pressuring the Administration to accelerate the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq and Afghanistan, and ensuring funding for key nuclear non-proliferation programs to keep nuclear weapons out of the hands of terrorists. This ensured the stability of a safe country trying to influence the Defense Policy in a way of all security and safety.
-Nuclear Threat Initiative--> this group created the World Institute for Nuclear Security also they created a Middle East Consortium on Infectious Disease Surveillance both are used to influence the decision making of the Defense Policy as they are trying to promote the best practices for nuclear materials security globally.
-L-3 Communications--> this group has created a cyber business in order to influence the policy in a way that brings the changing world of technology and help to best defend the country from new threats within cyberspace. It helps to influence the defense policy to lean towards new patterns of defense in order to cover new surfacing areas within the technological world in need of defense.

How successful have the groups been?
These interest groups have been very successful in regards to their getting large amounts of funding from the government and American civilians to continue their missions. These interest groups also have direct ties to the Department of Defense and can directly express their views on the best strategies to ensure the best security of defense for the country. The interest groups are also wide spread throughout many other countries enriching their success and influence.


Three interest Groups:
-Council for a Livable World -Nuclear Threat Initiative
-L-3 Communications
How the issue is being addressed by Congress.
Key committees including chairs
Subcommittee on Readiness and Management Support (Committee on Armed Forces)--> Claire McCaskill (MO) Chairwoman, Subcommittee on Personnel (Committee on Armed Services)--> James Webb (VA) Chairman, Subcommittee on Defense (Committee on Appropriations)--> Daniel Inouye (HI) Chairman, Subcommittee on Oversight Government Management (Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs)--> Tom Carper (DE) Chairman, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs)--> Carl Levin (MI) Chairman and Subcommittee on Defense (Appropriations Committee)--> C. W. Bill Young (FL), Chairman
Who is sponsoring legislation regarding defense policy? Who speaks for the parties?
Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel is the principle defense policy adviser and is responsible for the formulation of general defense policy and matters related to the policy directly concerned with the Department of Defense. Democratic speaker for defense policy: Senator Charles E. Schumer, and Republican speaker for defense policy: Senator Mitch McConnell
Key congressmen outside of chairs
Democrats--> Jack Reed, Bill Nelson, Mark Udall Kay Hagan

Republicans--> John McCain, Jeff Sessions, Saxby
Three pieces of legislation regarding defense policy?
Nuclear Iran Prevention Act of 2013, Cyber Intelligence Sharing and Protection Act, and the National Defense Authorization Act.
How the bureaucracy has been involved in the Defense Policy
Goals the administration set for the agency?
The Department engages in Warfighting, Humanitarian Aid, Peacekeeping, Disaster Relief and Homeland Security, while simultaneously performing functions necessary to effectively and efficiently support our Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen and Marines and their families.
The Department has five overarching Strategic Goals, as reflected in the DoD's latest Strategic Plan (i.e., 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) Report):
1. Prevail in Today’s Wars.
2. Prevent and Deter Conflict.
3. Prepare to Defeat Adversaries and Succeed in a Wide Range of Contingencies.
4. Preserve and Enhance the All-Volunteer Force.
5. Reform the Business and Support Functions of the Defense Enterprise.
The administrations goals DO correspond with congressional goals, here's why.
Yes, because the government goals relate to what the Department of Defense wants. Both see eye to eye on the idea that the country must be safe and secure at any expense in order to obtain the necessary intelligence and materials for the idea of a safer country to be realized, For example, both want to minimize involvement in war, and want the best of the best in regards to training, weaponry, and technology, and support the military and it's decisions.
What issues have arisen in the implementation of these laws
Cyberwar Attacks on Naval Computers.
issues include whether the authority should be expanded to provide training not only to military forces but also to a wide range of foreign security forces
Against the Defense Department’s wishes, Congress put all the "pet programs" back in the budget. Which cost people their jobs.
Key players in the bureaucracy
The executive branch and all branches of the military. William J. Lynn III, Deputy Secretary of Defense
Robert F. Hale, Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)
Michèle Flournoy, Under Secretary of Defense (Policy)
Jeh Charles Johnson, General Counsel
Agencies in charge of implementing the Defense Policy
Future of the Defense Policy
The Judiciary Ruling on Defense Policy
Bond v. United States (2013) this case made it's first appearance at the Supreme Court in the year 2011. (Brief synopsis: a woman named Carol A. Bond found out that her husband impragnated Myrlinda Haynes, and then tried to poison Haynes using toxic chemicals (10-chlophenoxarsine and potassium dichromate). The decision of Missouri v. Holland was reviewed as this is a tenth amendment case. Bond argued that a federal statute enforcing the Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act of 1998 intruded on the areas of police power given to the states. The case was remanded back to the Third Circuit. The outcome of this case could have the impact of overruling the Holland case and whether he Act should not apply to ordinary poison cases that local law can address. This case expands the idea on chemical weaponry and what is the priority where the Supreme Court is concerned. Also, Supreme Court case Windsor v. United States Supreme Court case final decision (2013) effect the defense policy. It gave same-sex marriage couples of military families the same benefits (whether they be educational, health care, etc.) as the heterosexual coupled families. Restricting US federal interpretation to that of heterosexual orientation marriages was ruled unconstitutional. This provides an impact of further equality among the military and deeper cohesion within the Department of Defense by allowing equal benefits.

In the near future with current discrepancies in the budget spending for U.S. Defense (although the cuts have yet to be of an extremely large value) even further disagreement on the spending for the Department of Defense can be inferred. More cuts from the U.S. Defense can be anticipated in the future even as now it is seen that military costs rise 2% each year (this is due to factors such as health care, environmental restoration, weapons purchases, pay for troops, etc.). The cuts must be carefully planned and discussed throughout Congress or else the possibilities of giving up missions and responsibilities will be very probable due to the lack of funding because of the impending deep cuts into the Department of Defense. Also, the Department of Defense may expand in the near future due to the many arising technologies making the country more vulnerable to attack (e.g. the availability of computer hacking). The expanding of the Department will be due to developing newer technologies of weaponry and technologies to defend the country from the prying eyes of others. With the anticipated cuts, making the decisions necessary to ensure the security of the country is essential. It will be a struggle to make sure that the resources necessary are available, while being able to fund the expanding Defense Department and somehow maintain control of the ever-increasing national debt.
Defining the Iron Triangle
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