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Mary I Foreign Policy
Transcript of Mary I Foreign Policy
In January 1556, on his father's abdication, Philip became the ruler of Spain, Spanish America, Naples and the Netherlands. This massive inheritance and the realisation in mid-1555 that Mary would not de him with an heir meant that Philip now had little time for England.
The Habsburg-Valois War was briefly brought to a halt by the Truce of Vaucelles (February 1556), but the formation of a Franco-Papal alliance reopened the war (July 1556). Philip now demanded help from England, and Mary had to decide how she was going to respond.
At the start of Mary's reign, Europe was still dominated by the Habsburg-Valois war in the Netherlands and Germany. Charles V's failure against the combined forces of the French and the German princes led to the Peace of Augsburg (1555), and to Charles' abdication in October 1555. Charles' brother, Ferdinand, became the Holy Roman Emperor with control only of Germany; the other territories went to Philip.
January 1557 - England sent troops to the Netherlands
Mary needed to protect England's Trading Partners in the Netherlands from the French
It is the
loss of Calais
which has been held as the ‘definition’ of Mary’s foreign policy.
1. It was caused by the lack of support from Spain and so was not Mary’s fault.
2. From a nationalist view it was an embarrassment
3. It was a blow to England’s morale. Significantly it would be used as a symbol of the failure and rejection of Mary’s Catholic regime and Spanish connection by God.
"Positive achievements there were none"
1. The Navy functioned efficiently in the Channel and the Atlantic
2. The participation in the successful siege of St Quentin
3. The effective garrisoning of the Scottish border
4. Defence of Calais
Henry II's victories in 1552 (his capture of Metz, Toul and Verdun) shifted the main focus of the
away from Italy towards Germany and the Netherlands, thereby bringing England and the English channel more directly into the major European arena of conflict.
Negative Aspects of the Spanish Alliance
Unpopular and distance Mary from her people
English subjects felt that their country was being used as a Spanish pawn
The Spanish-led foreign policy resulted in England becoming a new battleground in the Habsburg-Valois War; it led to the loss of Calais and to Spain eventually replacing France as the principal enemy of England in Elizabeth's reign.
Positive Aspects of the Spanish Alliance
Warren believes Mary's foreign policy to be a disaster.
“it was more than bad luck” (Guy)
“the loss of Calais was significant but her reign should not be condemned just because of this one event” (Rogerson)
“The Spanish marriage tore her kingdom apart" (Starkey)
1521 - 1555
The German states and Spain, led by Charles V (the grandson of Maximilian who wanted Venice for its riches), fought with the French (the Valois) for territoty in Italy because the cities in Italy were flourishing and the marriage between Maximilian of Habsburg and Mary of Burgundy made the French mad because they viewed the Burgundy territory as theirs. The war took place in Italy. Some of it took place in the German states. France did not want "Germany" to form. Even though the French were Catholic, it was shown that the French supported the Holy Roman Lutheran princes because the princes would fight against Charles V, who was Catholic. The Treat of Cateau-Cambre'sis was made in 1559, and that ended the wars. Spain had the victory.
Would create what was effectively a new super-state in western Europe : England, Spain and the Netherlands. This as a combined unit would be inherited by the heirs of Philip and Mary and would present France with a much more severe challenge to European supremacy than England and Spain did on an individual basis.
Loss of Calais according to
describes the loss as an economically
because of the loss of trade
Spanish marriage + Catholic policy = Loss of Calais
Holinshed's Chronicles: Mary lamented "when I am dead and opened, you shall find Calais lying in my heart"