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Growth and Development

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Maritzabel Monge

on 7 January 2011

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Transcript of Growth and Development

Growth and Development
By: Maritzabel Monge & Brenda Lopez Prenatal Development and Birth The Beginning of the life cycle Infancy and Chlidhood The Beginning The body begins with one single cell. This cell is formed by
the union of an egg
cell or ovum from
a female and
a sperm from a
male. Fertilization The resulting cell is called a zygote and within
a day after forming it begins dividing as it travels
down the Fallopian tube. When the zygote reaches the uterus it has divided many times and formed a cluster of cells with a hollow space in the center and In a few days
it attaches it self
to the uterine wall. Implantation Between the 3rd and 8th week the cluster of cells is called an Embryo. after about 8th weeks this developing group of cells is called a fetus. Growth As the Embryo grows, its cells divide up
more, and it forms 3 tissue layers that become
different body systems. One becomes the respiratory system and digestive system
Another one becomes the muscle, bones, blood vessels and skin.
And the 3rd one layer forms the nervous system, sense organs, and mouth. about the same time
2 of the most important structures form outside the embryo. Amniotic Sac
-A thin fluid filled membrane that surrounds the embryo.
-Protects embryo from temperature changes

Umbilical Cord
Has a form of a rope that connects the embryo to a thick, blood-rich tissue called the placeta, that lines the walls of the uterus during pregnancy.
substances that are harmful to the embryo can pass trough the umbilical cord.
So if a pregnant woman used harmful substances like drugs they can end up hurting the
embryo.
substances that are harmful to the embryo can pass trough the umbilical cord.
So if a pregnant woman uses harmful substances like drugs they can end up hurting the
embryo. Development
-The time from fertilization to birth
is usually about 9 months.
The months are divided into 3
month periods called trimesters. 1st Trimester 0-2 Weeks
The brain ears and arms begin to form and the heart starts beating 3-8 Weeks
-The embryo grows up to 1 inch.
-The mouth nostrils eye lids , hands, fingers feet, and toes begin to form
-The cardiovascular system is fully ready 9-14 Weeks
The fetus has developed eyelids, finger
nails toenails and its sex organs 2nd Trimester 15-20 Weeks
-The fetus is able to blink its eyes
-The body starts growing a and the growth of the head slows
-Eyebrows and eyelashes develop
-It can grasp and kick and it starts moving more 21-28 Weeks
-The fetus can hear noises from the outside
-It’s about 12 inches long and weighs a bit more then 1 pound
3rd Trimester 29-40 weeks
-The fetus uses all 5 senses and begins to pass water from the bladder
-at this point most fetuses are 6 to 9 pounds and are ready to be born
While the embryo is growing in the uterus, it prepares for living outside the mothers body
-The Organs get ready to work on their own.
-Fat deposits are added under the skin to help it maintain body heat after birth.
-It stores nutrients and builds protection from diseases and infections. Usually at about the 9th month, the uterus contracts and pushes the baby out of the mothers body. Infancy and Childhood Early Childhood 1 to 2 Months
-New born Babies respond to voices and
other sounds
- they tell their feelings by cooing, gurgling, smiling, and crying. 3 to 8
Months
-Babies play with sounds and they babble to
themselves.
-They use sounds to communicate
-They can play peek-a-boo.
-They wave arms and kick feet to show excitement,
-studies have shown that they enjoy being read to. 8 to 12
Months
-Babies understand and respond to gestures,
facial expressions, and changes in tone of
voice.
-They understand simple words, such as “Da Da.” 18 to 24
Months
-Toddlers put two or more words together to make short sentences like “want juice” or “car go.”
- They learn new words quickly.
-They can copy adult sounds, words, and motions.
- They ask and answer simple questions.
- They can use crayons and markers
for scribbling. During this time the Child's weight has tripled and his/her height may have increased by 50%
Most have learned how to eat solid food and how to sit as well.
24 to 36
Months
-Listen to stories being read.
-They like to play pretend games.
-They love asking “why” questions.
-They enjoy looking at pictures
books, turning pages, and naming objects they see. 3 to 5 Years
-preschoolers make comments and
requests.
- They can talk about things that happened and make
up stories.
-They listen attentively to stories
and retell stories themselves.
-They enjoy
books that tell about real things as well as
make-believe.
- They make shapes such as circles and squares and
try to write the way they have seen
adults write. By this time children began too feel proud of their accomplishments and they become eager to learn. They develop many new skills. They learn new skills like talking, climbing and pushing. Middle Childhood 6-8 Years
Middle childhood brings many changes. By this time, children can dress themselves, catch a ball more easily with only their hands, and tie their shoes. Events such as starting school bring children this age into regular contact with the world. Friendships become more and more important. Physical, social, and mental skills develop faster at this time. This is a time for children to develop confidence, such as through friends, schoolwork, and sports. Emotional/Social Changes
-More independence from parents and family.
-Stronger sense of right and wrong.
-More attention to friendships and teamwork.
-Growing desire to be liked and accepted by friends. 9-11 years
A child is growing independence from the family and interest in friends are important now. Peer pressure can become strong during this time. Children who feel good about themselves are more able to resist negative peer pressure and make better choices for themselves. This is a time for children to gain responsibility along with their growing independence. Physical changes of puberty might be showing by now, especially for girls. Another big change children need to prepare for during this time is starting middle school.
Adolescence
Adolescence is the phase of transition from being a child to an adult. Just before adulthood. Social Development
There is a friction of adolescent with their parents, siblings and relatives. While parents fail to give personal space to their young adult, the teenager, on the other hand, find that his/her parent are too interfering and do not understand him/her at all. During adolescence, teens spend much of their time with their friends. Peer pressure is also one of the important things during this age. Groups and crowds become more important and dating becomes very important to. Physical Development
Adolescent years are not just about growth in height, it also involve a whole lot of other physical changes such as development of bones, muscles, and organs in the teenager. An important part of being a teenager is puberty, in both males and females. A big significant body change takes place, this is the development of sex characteristics that relate to a persons gender.
Some sex characteristics called primary sex characteristics are related to the production of reproductive cells called Gametes. The male gametes are the sperm, and the females gametes are the eggs. The eggs are their since a females birth but they don’t mature until puberty, when ovulation begins.
Problems
Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Lack of love and attention from parents and bad company are the big reasons, for teenagers falling into the grips of drug and alcohol abuse.
Juvenile Behavior
Immature and socially unacceptable behavior are visible during this age. From, acting violently to criminal acts such as burglary, running away form home is often a part of adolescent and needs to be treated.
Depression and Suicide - Adolescents are most endangered to suicide and depression. The basic factors that cause this include high stress, loss of a boyfriend or girlfriend, poor grades, an unwanted pregnancy, or earlier experiences such as family instability and unhappiness Adulthood Young adulthood Young adulthood is a time of dramatic change in basic thinking structures, as well as in the brain. A 19-year-old is not the same person she or he will be at 25. They don't look the same, feel the same, think the same, or act the same.
.
By this time most have reached physical maturity. This means that the
physical body and its organs are fully developed, but that doesn’t mean
you’re an adult, to be an adult you need to develop emotionally.
This is called Emotional Maturity, this is when the mental and emotional a
rea of a person has developed. Middle Adulthood
Changes don’t stop after adolescence ends, it continuous throughout your entire life.
People in Middle adulthood experience physical changes as their bodies age. Skin loses its elasticity, the functioning of the bodies organs slows, and the body’s immune system becomes less effective. Females go through menopause around the ages 45 to 55. This marks the ending of ovulation and menstruation, and they can’t get pregnant anymore. Late Adulthood
Becoming older is a natural progression of life.
Late adulthood occurs after the age of 65 until death.
Hair whitens and thins, spinal cartilage thins, leading
to a loss of height, and their is some cell loss in the brain.
The whole nervous system begins to function more slowly
and the brain doesn’t processes information as well as
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