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Camelia Galea

on 20 August 2014

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Audience theories
Uses and gratification theory
uses and gratification model
suggests that media audience is active and while consuming media they have a set of needs, social and psychological.The

audience is

using the


witch doesn't have the power to manipulate!
Gratification meaning is
satisfied needs
! When we select a movie is reflecting our personality and sometimes our needs but also we get involved in social interaction, or we use social media to promote ourselves.
Cultivation theory
Cultivation theory
is, like hypodermic needle effect, in close relation with passive audience and it's suggests that a repeated message can influence people and their values in better or worse.
For example an advertisement that too much sugar, salt and fat can affect our health can have an impact on our
dietary habits and we might improve the way we eat and opposite, too much violence in media leads to a violent behave.
Two step theory
This theory is referring to a slightly active audience but
leader's opinions
are an intermediate to promote a message, a product or a campaign to their loyal audience by a two step flow process and appears to reduce the power of media.
Reception theory
(encoding/ decoding messages)
Reception analysis
is an active audience theory and is focusing on the audience reaction to a particular
media text. Interpreting the meaning and reaching a conclusion after a puzzle effect, the audience can object or share the message.
Depending on age, nationality or culture the media content can be read it (
the context) in different ways.
Hypodermic needle
The hypodermic needle theory is related to passive audience (specialy mass-media from 1950's-1960's) and

has a direct, immediate and powerful
effect, the information and message is purely
through adverting and propaganda with the purpose to trigger an expected response.
The input of media can be quite dangerous for audience considering that can have a negative impact, specially among teenagers and children, like game production in our days.
Types of audience theories
1. Hypodermic needle effect
2. Cultivation theory
3. Two step flow
4. Reception theory ( Encoding/ Decoding model)
5. Uses and gratification theory

Audience theories
Conform with the audience's level of passivity or activity we can discuss about a few
audience theories
correlated with their reception towards media and the effect media creates.
Many theories are trying to find the answer to the question:

Witch are the effects that media texts can have on audiences?

Active vs passive audience
One of key concepts in media industries is
because all media texts are produced with an audience in mind
We are all engaged with media as members and participants of an audience,
and not only that media cannot survive without an audience, but in our days it's quite difficult to live without media.
Types of audience
In the 50's-60's most
of the audience was
passive, today is
more active.
accepts and believe all messages in any media text, opposite, an
audience is using media text for their own purpose.

Mass audience
- group consuming commercial TV programmes.
Niche audience
- people with unique interest.
Individual audience
Any individual or group of people who
receive and consume any form of media text ( written in magazines or showed in films and social media) are part of a selected audience.
Are they active or passive audience?
In my blog
Recreating life through film
I am analyzing all key concepts in media industries:

Media language


My blog
passive theories

suggest that audience
is manipulated by media's empty messages.
active theories
suggests that audiences are using media to satisfy their needs and before they believe any media text the audiences are questioning the content first.
Other theories combine the concepts
of active audience theories and effects model...

Obstinate audience theory
- audience participates in the communication with media, influencing the message.
Hypermedia seduction theory
computer and internet audiences are influenced by what they see, remaining in trend with actuality.

Resource Wikipedia
Brett Lamb
Media in minutes
Brett Lamb
Media in minutes
A few video

Grant Abbitt
Encoding and decoding reception theory
The hypodermic needle theory
Hypodermic needle theory
More information
Two step theory
Uses and gratification theory
Audience research
Audience research
is a major element for any media producer because MEDIA companies need to know people's "watching tastes". For example these research companies use questionnaire to find out about their life-style and automatically what they will like to buy. For example sometimes the end of the movie is changed if the
trail audience
doesn't like the ending.
If at the beginning of modernism was one possible audience response, today audiences are complex and have different needs and tastes. TODAY AUDIENCE IS A CONSUMER WHO interact WITH MEDIA.
Times are changing and the most powerful media is digital media who embrace
internet and mobile mass communication.
Digital media is at our fingerprint and we can be easily an active audience with constructive needs.
Are today's audiences active or passive consumers of the media industries? http://lifeandlfilmfanatic.blogspot.co.uk/
Cultivation theory
Audience= people who "read" any media text.
More information
Full transcript