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Ancient India 2500-1500 BC
Transcript of Ancient India 2500-1500 BC
The Caste System:
Brahmin- priests, teachers, and judge who understood dharma (Spiritual laws that governed the universe). The Brahmin often lived apart from the rest of society in temples.
Kshatriya- the warriors caste who made everyday decisions and ran the government. The Kshatriya had most of the power in everyday life, but their decisions could be overruled by the Brahmin.
Vaishya- skilled farmers and merchants. They occasionally had leadership positions in local villages.
Sudras- unskilled workers that often worked on the farms of the people of higher castes.
Untouchables- foreigners, lawbreakers, people from isolated tribes, and people suffering from contagious diseases were untouchables or “outcastes.”
Unsuitable for personal relations with people in the caste system.
Had undesirable jobs, like killing, disposing of dead animals or working with their hides, sweepers, and washers.
Sophisticated city planning:
contained buildings connected by a maze of streets
laid out cities on a precise grid system
constructed of oven-baked bricks cut into standard sizes
sophisticated plumbing and sewage systems
Indus seals depicted animals
means of identifying goods
made small figures of people and animals using metal and clay
Only a few small statues survive.
Priest King: iconic representation of the Indus civilization
Common Question: How to obtain clean water and remove human waste?
Land was good for growing things because of the flowing rivers
found over 1,500 sites of Indus (none were harmful)
Don't know how they got there exactly
A City Dating Back to 7500 BC
Announced on January 16, 2002 from New Delhi
Cities developed about 4,000 years earlier than is currently believed
The scientists found pieces of wood, remains of pots, fossil bones and construction material
Current Belief: 3500 BC in the valley of Sumer (Iraq)
New Belief: There were cities in the region more than 9,500 years ago (7500 BC)
Dharma is the Indian's Spiritual Laws which includes guidelines for living that encompass both the physical and spiritual aspects of life.
Interactions with Other People
Many drawing but we can't figure out what they mean
very friendly people
found very little evidence of warfare and weapons
over 1500 sites were found with Indians and none showed signs of violence or weapons
Mainly kings (rajahs).
When the king dies, his oldest son would become king
Highest level of the Caste System: Brahmin (priests, teachers, and judges) and Kshatriya (warriors)
Answer: Indoor Plumbing System
Only the rich had separate bathrooms in their homes
Indus people built extensive and modern looking plumbing systems
No other civilization achieved this level of technology in plumbing until the late 19th century
Toilets- Neatly built of brick with a wooden seat
Pipes connected to each house carried waste water into an underground sewer system
Waste drained through clay pipes into brick sewers under the streets
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DHARMA." Dharma. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2013. <http://www.myhindupage.org/index.php/dharmathe-laws-of-harmony-a-balance>.
INDUS CIVILIZATION 2500-1500 B.C." INDUS CIVILIZATION 2500-1500 B.C. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2013. <http://ccrtindia.gov.in/induscivilisculp.htm>.
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One or two stories high, made of baked brick, with flat roofs, and were just about identical.
Each was built around a courtyard, with windows overlooking the courtyard.
Each home had its own private drinking well and its own private bathroom.
Typical Dinner- warm wheat bread with barley or rice.
They grew barley, peas, melons, wheat, and dates.
Farms raised cotton and kept herds of sheep, pigs, cows, water buffalo, and caught fish in the rivers.
1. Rita Dharma– (Nature)
ensures balance in nature.
Laws that govern movement of planets to our weather and ecology, and also laws for our bodies physiology and even the processes of biologic evolution.
2. Varna Dharma– (One's place within a community).
Refering to the caste system- ones duty toward community, neighbourhood and nation; and ones culture.
3. Ashrama Dharma– (Development of an individual from a child to an elder)
Duties and responsibilities to oneself and community naturally evolve with age.
Four main stages of maturity– student, householder, community elder and spiritual seeker.
4. Svadharma–(Ones personal dharma)
Personal ideals, aspirations and passion.
Shaped by karma and interest that we develop.
Fulfilling ones dreams in life.
Dharma is divided into four categories:
The Ancient Bath- Used for purification, located at the center of town
~Intense Massive Cities (Harappa & Mohenjo)
brick walls perfectly straight
~Cities had their own air conditioning
these cities were made so the winds could blow through them but not blow them over like an air conditioning system
houses were connected to a drainage system
gravity pulled waist down into one big sewages that ran under the city
~Tallest building in Hehdudara, a community bath (The Great Bath)
don't know what it was used for but is now used as ritual purity
stamps and seals
Indus seals were found in Summer and Sumerian seals were found in India
City in the Indus River valley
Writing was done using a pointed stick in soft clay, or with a sharp tool to scratch marks on stone or metal.
Writing probably had to do with trade, government or religion.
Wrote right to left then left to right and so on.
lost wax process; way to make sculptures
They used a special type of clay, which was baked. Once the pot was made, the painters would paint beautiful designs, the theme being birds, animals and men.
Dancing Girl: one of the most famous statue made of bronze
invented a pattern of symbols which were etched onto soft clay with a reed.
writing became known as "cuneiform" or wedge-shaped writing
A Harappan unicorn seal, dated 2400 B.C.
Hindu Kush, Kara Koram, and Himalayan Mountain Ranges separated South Asia from the rest of the continent
Also known as The Indian Subcontinent
India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh are refered to as subcontinents
scholars unable to determine religion of Indus people
many clay figures of the mother goddess have been fine (goddess of fertility)
cow considered most sacred
Water-important in religious life
buried and burned their dead
seals reveal swastika symbol that is also found in other religions
seal of a god
Cotton was spun, woven, and died for clothing
Wheel made pottery
Farmers: crops were cultivated, animals were domesticated
Caste System: priests, rulers, warriors, traders
Vaisyas: mold workers
Sudras: foundry workers
Slaves: took over jobs
Other workers: used skills passed down from family
Harappan Unicorn Seal
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