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Comparing Cognitive Demands for Narrative & Expository Texts

Unit 8
by

Madison Edgar

on 26 March 2016

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Transcript of Comparing Cognitive Demands for Narrative & Expository Texts

Comparing Cognitive Demands for Narrative & Expository Texts

By: Madison Edgar

What is the difference between narrative and expository texts?
The other provides information to teach something.
One tells a story.

The differences between these texts changes the types of cognitive demands required for comprehension.
Let's take a
look at narrative texts
first...
setting
characters
goal
problem
plot (or action)
resolution
theme (moral)
Story grammar elements -

Students with learning disabilities (LD) have trouble recalling elements of a story, especially abstract concepts like theme
Directly teaching story grammar helps students see the important relationships which helps with understanding.
Who are the characters? What are the problems presented? How are the problems resolved? What did the characters learn along the way?
Let students discuss the story as they read.
You can use generic cue cards with questions about story structure to help prompt students about story facts and help with making inferences.
Where did the story take place?
Narrative texts are very different from expository texts in terms of -
Purpose
Story grammar
Main idea
Narrative texts tell a story.
Purpose -
Awareness of the text structure helps with comprehension. It helps construct meaning as students read.

"Is the passage telling us a story or teaching us something?"
Main Idea
Important part in reading comprehension.

Narrative texts require the reader to find the main idea from the timeline of events in the story.
Teacher modeling, guided practice, and corrective feedback can help students identify the main idea
In addition to the direct instruction techniques, self-questioning helps with find the main idea.

Have students state the main idea in their own words for each section in a story.
Let's take a look at expository texts now!
Expository texts provide information so the reader learns something.
Purpose -

Students will benefit from knowing the text wants to teach them something before they begin reading. They will understand the goal of the text.
Expository texts have different text structures...
Examples:
compare-contrast
sequence
cause-effect
description
The variety can be challenging for students with LD.

Teachers can help students by using familiar topics/ideas as they teach the structures and start applying the structures with easy passage examples.
Example:

Model a compare-contrast text on Earth and Saturn. Have students list similarities and differences from the text.
Main Idea
Expository texts require a generalization based on the logical relationship of ideas about a topic.
The main idea can sometimes be defined by the specific genre of the text.
Similar to narrative text, direct instruction is the best way to help students learn how to identify main idea.
Model for students how to use self-monitoring to verify understanding of the main idea with a science article.
Example:
References
Jitendra, A. K., & Gajria, M. (2011). Reading Comprehension for Students with Learning Disabilities. Focus on Exceptional Children, 43(8), 1-15.

Identifying the main idea activity example

Reading Rockets, & National Education Association. (n.d.). Reading Comprehension. Retrieved March 20, 2016, from http://www.readingrockets.org/reading-topics/reading-comprehension Used video.

Any questions?
That's all, folks!
Full transcript