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2.1 The impact of fascism on Italian foreign policy: The ori
Transcript of 2.1 The impact of fascism on Italian foreign policy: The ori
War made more political divided Italy. 5 million men that served in its army were politicized, resenting the liberal government for their mismanagement of the war. Also, there was resenting for PSI´s stance against war. The workforce was mobilized to fight a total war.
Italy had become an unified state in 1861. Rome and the Papal state joined in 1870.
Italian society remained divided across geographical, religious and social lines.
Mussolini rise to power with the fascist Party in 1922.
Long term weaknesses of Liberal italy?
Lack of national identity
The impact of war
Italy fought against Astria and Germany
Battle of Caporetto, October 1917.
End of war 1918, Italy achieved a victory in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto.
Human cost of the war: 600,000 deads, hundreds thousands wounds.
Factors which influenced Italian foreing policy
Italy´s geographical position and its lmited economic resources.
the Versailles Settlement
Nationalist views on the destiny of Italy to become a great power and to have an empire.
Earlier foreign policy humiliations
the changing international context
What is fascism?
It manifested itself differently in different countries.
In general, Fascism promoted: nationalism, strong leader or dictator, one-party government, empire building and war.
It stood against: communist, class struggle, internationalism, multi-party liberal democracy and pacifism.
Fascism´s growth in Europe was fostered by the impact of the First World War. Mussolini 1919, fascio di combattimento.
Why did support for fascism grow in Italy after the First World War?
Following the war, Italy entered into a political crisis. The Liberal government lose control. The result was short-term governments and this undermined the credibility of the democratic parliamentary system.
Liberal Prime minister Vittorio has not obtained the territory Italy had claimed from the Austro-Hungarian empire.
Orlando Vittorio was forced to resign. There was a widespread disgust in Italy at the outcome of the Versailles Settlement.
Impact of D´Annunzio and the Fiume affair on Fascism?
Gabriel D´Annunzio led 2000 ex-soldiers to occupy Fiume by force in protest against Italian government.
The whole affair undermined the credibility of the Italian democratic system.
What was the impact of economic factors on the rise of Fascism?
High inflation hit both the fixed wage workers and the middle classes with savings.
Unemployment soared to 2 millions.
US restriction on immigration.
Bolshevick revolution in Russia.
Mussolini and the fascist gained support from the wealthy industrialists and landowners.
Ideological opposition and preparation for physical confrontation against the socialist and the communists.
Fascist were supported by the Catholic Church.
How important was the march on Rome, October 1922?
Why the fascist believed that it was their time to control Italy?
Who were in the power in 1922?
What they could not control?
What could only Mussolini restore?
What Mussolini backed?
What group was the boss of Mussolini?
What was hold in Naples?
What the king said to Mussolini?