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Cells

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by

CC Wilfert

on 12 January 2015

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Transcript of Cells

Cells
Introduction
Cell size
Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells
Stem cells
Organelles
Differentiation
Microscopes
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
Cell siz
Cell Differentiation
The process by which cells change in structure and become capable of carrying out specialized functions
Stem Cells
Prokaryotic cells
Single celled organisms that are usually small and simple
Unicellular organisms that don't develop or differentiate into multicellular forms
Classified into two different groups: bacteria & archaea
Don't have a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria or any other membrane-bound organelles
Prokaryotic cells are also used to make food like yogurt
Eukaryotic cells
Any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other structures enclosed within membranes
The defining membrane-bound structure that sets eukaryotes apart from prokaryotes is the nucleus, or nuclear envellope, in which the genetic material is carried
Consists of other organelles such as mitochondria and golgi apparatus
Can be further arranged into groups: the protists, fungi, plants, and animals
Differences
Similarities
Both have ribosomes
Both have DNA as their genetic material
Both contain RNA
All cells are composed of the same basic chemicals
Carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, minerals, fats, vitamins
Both have vesicles and vacuoles
Both surrounded by a cell membrane
Stem cells are unspecified cells that can develop into many different cell types in the body
They serve as an internal repair system (tissues)
They continuously divide to replenish other cells
When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the option to remain a stem cell or become a different cell with a specialized function
Ex- muscle cell, liver cell, red blood cell, brain cell, etc.
Microscopes
Mindfulness...
e
And so it begins...
Store, Clean up, and support
Vacuoles and vesicles:
store materials (only in eukaryotes)
Lysosomes:
break down and recycle macromolecules (only in eukaryotes)
Organelles that build protein
Ribosomes
: synthesize proteins (in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes)
Endoplasmic Reticulum:
assembles proteins and lipids (eukaryotes)
Golgi Apparatus:
modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and lipids for storage or to transport out the cell
Organelles that capture and release energy
Chloroplast
: converts solar energy to chemical energy stored in food (in some prokaryotes and all plants)
Mitochondria
: convert chemical energy in food to useable compounds (in eukaryotic cells)
Cellular boundaries
Cell Wall:
shapes, supports, and protects the cell (in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but only plants not animals)
Cell membrane:
regulates materials entering and leaving the cell, and also protects and supports the cell (both prokaryotes and eukaryotes
The Nucleus
Contains DNA
All eukaryotic cells have a nucleus
Prokaryotes don't, but they do contain genetic information
Organelles
Continued...
Cytoskeleton:
maintains cell shape, moves cell parts, and helps cells move (Eukaryotes and prokaryotes)
Centrioles:
organize cell division (only animal eukaryotes)
Prokaryotic cells: 1-5 micrometers
Eukaryotic cells: 10-100 micrometers
Structure of a prokaryotic cell
The 4 main parts of prokaryotic cells
The plasma membrane
- a microscopic membrane of lipids and proteins that forms the external boundary of the cytoplasm of a cell, and that regulates the passage of molecules in and out of the cytoplasm
Cytoplasm
- the material within a living cell, excluding the nucleus
Ribosomes
- small particles consisting of RNA and associated proteins found in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins
Genetic material (DNA and RNA)
- genetic information is carried on a single circular piece of DNA which is attached to the cell membrane. There is no enclosing membrane, so there is no true nucleus, but simply a concentration of DNA known as a nucleoid
Structure of a eukaryotic cell
5 main parts of a eukaryotic cell
The nucleus- the material or protoplasm within a living cell
Genetic material
Plasma membrane
Ribosomes
Cytoplasm, along with the cytoskeleton
Animal cell
Part of multicellular organisms
Have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, but they lack cell walls
As cells differentiate, they become different from one another
They also form groups made of other similarly specialized cells
These groups of cells then form tissues and organs
Structure vs. Function
Structure
The single cell becomes an organism with specialized structures (through mitosis and differentiation)
Function
When cells differentiate, they become capable of carrying out specialized functions
Levels of Organization
Cells
Tissues
Organs
When cells differentiate, they also become organized. For example...
Organ systems
Organism
How cells differentiate
Instructions that determine what will happen to a cell are coded in the cell's DNA, which is found in the nucleus
Differentiation occurs when certain sections of DNA are
turned off
DNA that is still
active
will detemine what the cell will become
When a cells future has been determined, when and how much it will then change depends on its DNA, function, and type of organism it is in
Cell differentiation in animals
Some animals, like reptiles, can grow a limb or tail to replace a lost one
Once human cells differentiate, they lose the ability to become other types of cells
However, humans do produce stem cells
Cell differentiation in plants
Cells differentiate in developing plants the same way they differentiate in animals
Differentiated plant cells grow together to form tissues that make up roots, stems, and leaves
There are two types of stem cells:
Embry nic & Adult
Derived from embryos
They are pluripotent meaning they can differentiate into all derivatives of the 3 primary germ layers; ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
However, the use of embryonic stem cells is controversial due to the possibility that the embryo could develop into a fetus (causes ethical debate)
Undifferentiated cells found in the body that divide to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues
Also known as somatic stem cells
Can be found in both children and adults
Eye Piece
The part you look through that contains a lens capable of 10x magnification
Revolving Nose piece

Turns to change from one objective to another
Objectives
Attached to the nose piece
Contains lenses that further magnify the specimen
Stage
The platform to support the slide
Stage clips
Holds the glass slide and specimen in place
Diaphragm
Regulates the amount of light entering the scope
Lamp/Mirror
Source of light directed into the microscope
Base
Supports the whole microscope
Coarse Adjustment
Brings objects into rapid but 'coarse' functions
Fine adjustment
Brings objects slowly into 'fine' focus
Always adjust the coarse adjustment first!!
Arm
Holds the objectives above the stage
Questions
Bibliography
Thanks for watching!
By: Celine Wilfert
Outline the difference between the mitochondria and the chloroplast.
Explain the similarities between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
Define the 'diapragm' on a microscope.
Discuss the benefits and drawbacks of using embryonic stem cells.
Identify the process of cell differentiation.
Embryonic stem cells have great research purposes for scientists around the world. However, many still see them as a point of ethical debate. The controversy is centered on the moral implications of destroying human embryos. Political leaders debate over how to regulate and fund research involving human embryonic stem cells. Each country has their own policies regarding embryonic stem cell research and usage. This link discusses the specifics of the regulation of stem cells in European countries.
http://www.eurostemcell.org/stem-cell-regulations
ToK
When regarding microscopes, there are many "ways of knowing" that can be associated with it to bring forward the connection to ToK. We are consistently using our sense perception to see the image projected. Also, we have the power to change what we see to instead fit what our expectations are of the image. Along with this, through the use of our intuition, we are capable of recognizing if what we see is correct. If the image is out of focus or misplaced, we have reason to alter it in order to meet expectations.
"Cell Organelles and Their Structure & Function." BioTecNika. Web. 12 Jan. 2015. <http://www.biotecnika.org/cell-biology/cell-organelles-structure-function>.

"Cell Size and Scale." Cell Size and Scale. Web. 6 Jan. 2015. <http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cells/scale/>.

"Cells and Organelles." Cells and Organelles. Web. 26 Dec. 2014. <http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/cells.htm>.

"Cellular Differentiation." Princeton University. Web. 7 Jan. 2015. <https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Cellular_differentiation.html>.

"Differentiation and Stem Cells." BBC News. BBC. Web. 7 Jan. 2015. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_aqa/inheritance/dna_cell_divisionrev4.shtml>.

"Microparts." Microparts. Web. 10 Jan. 2015. <http://sciencespot.net/Media/microparts.pdf>.

"ProkaryoticvsEukaryotic." Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic. Web. 19 Dec. 2014. <http://www.life.umd.edu/classroom/bsci424/BSCI223WebSiteFiles/ProkaryoticvsEukaryotic.htm>.

"Regulation of Stem Cell Research in Europe. Europe's Stem Cell Hub. EuroStemCell." Regulation of Stem Cell Research in Europe. Europe's Stem Cell Hub. EuroStemCell. Web. 7 Jan. 2015. <http://www.eurostemcell.org/stem-cell-regulations>.
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