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Enterprise Architecture

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Joy Marie

on 14 May 2014

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Transcript of Enterprise Architecture


WHY
: increasing complexity in businesses led to information systems that did not meet system needs and that were more resource intensive than they were worth

High level timeline
:
1987: John Zachman publishes the first Zachman Framework in IBM Systems journal and establishes the field of Enterprise Architecture
1994: The Department of Defense releases it's own framework for enterprise architecture
1996: The Clinger-Cohen Act is established to "direct the development and maintenance of Information Technology Architectures by federal agencies to maximize the benefits of IT" (Wikipedia)
1998: The first version of DHIS was released in South Africa by the Health Information Systems Programme
History of Enterprise Architecture
What is an "enterprise"?
Enterprise Architecture
and its use in public health
Architecture:
Fundamental concepts or properties of a system in its environment embodied in its elements, relationships, and in the principles of its design and evolution
(ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010)



What is "architecture"?
Many people and groups are working towards EA in the US, Africa, and in other regions with developing Health Information Systems -
Future recommended training topic: overview of efforts and players working on EA in the African region

The approach to EA requires special considerations when working with governments and countries rather than businesses
independent actors
social implications

Enterprise Architecture in Public Health
Frameworks in Enterprise Architecture
http://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/togaf9-doc/arch/index.html

TOGAF
"Blueprints
please"
Plumber
Builder
Architect
Electrician
Data elements reference model
Data flow model
Hardware and software specifications
Business process models
Examples of architectural "blueprints" in IT might include:
In IT architecture, these different "blueprints" are called
ARTIFACTS
Reflects functional, technical, and social considerations (2)
Involves multiple layers of components that each their own documentation
Each layer has a dedicated expert who speaks a slightly different "language"
Enterprise
Data elements reference model
Data flow model
Hardware and software specifications
Business process models
Examples of architectural "blueprints" in IT might include:
In IT architecture, these different "blueprints" are called
ARTIFACTS
Planner
Designer
Owner
Builder
Programmer
User
A taxonomy of artifacts of enterprise architecture

Published in 1987 and established EA as a field

Foundational for all following EA frameworks

Objectives
:
Determine the Architecture Capability desired by the organization
Establish the Architecture Capability

Approach
:
"This Preliminary Phase is about defining 'where, what, why, who, and how we do architecture' in the enterprise concerned."
"...provides the strategic context.

Steps:
Scope the Enterprise Organizations Impacted
Confirm Governance and Support Frameworks
Define and Establish Enterprise Architecture Team and Organization
Identify and Establish Architecture Principles
Tailor TOGAF and, if any, Other Selected Architecture Framework(s)
Implement Architecture Tools

Outputs (artifacts
):
Core (minimum)
:
Architectural Principles Catalog
Extension
:
Organizational Model for Enterprise Architecture
Tailored Architecture Framework
Initial Architecture Repository
Request or Architecture Work
Architecture Governance Framework



Sound familiar?
Objectives
:
Develop a high-level aspirational vision of the capabilities and business value to be delivered as a result of the proposed enterprise architecture
Obtain approval for a Statement of Architecture Work that defines a program of works to develop and deploy the architecture outlined in the Architecture Vision
Steps:

Establish the Architecture Project
Identify Stakeholders, Concerns, and Business Requirements
Confirm and Elaborate Business Goals, Business Drivers, and Constraints
Evaluate Business Capabilities
Assess Readiness for Business Transformation
Define Scope
Confirm and Elaborate Architecture Principles, including Business Principles
Develop Architecture Vision
Define the Target Architecture Value Propositions and KPIs
Identify the Business Transformation Risks and Mitigation Activities
Develop Statement of Architecture Work; Secure Approval
Core Outputs:
Stakeholder Map Matrix
Value Chain Diagram
Solution Concept Diagram
Architecture Development Model
Process Flow Diagram
Business Use Case
1. Data architecture
2. Application architecture
Core artfacts
:
Organization/Actor Catalog
Role Catalog
Business Service/Function Catalog
Business Interaction Matrix
Actor/Role Matrix
Business Footprint Diagram
Business Service/Information Diagram
Functional Decomposition Diagram
Product Lifecycle Diagram
Data Entity/Data Component Catalog
Data Entity/Business Function Matrix
Application/Data Matrix
Conceptual Data Diagram
Logical Data Diagram
Data Dissemination Diagram
Application Portfolio Catalog
Interface Catalog
Application/Organization Matrix
Role/Application Matrix
Application/Function Matrix
Application Interaction Matrix
Application Communication Diagram
Application and User Location Diagram
Application Use-Case Diagram
Technology Architecture
Technology Standards Catalog
Technology Standards Catalog
Technology Portfolio Catalog
Application/Technology Matrix
Environments and Locations Diagram
Platform Decomposition Diagram
Core Artifacts:
Networking and Computing Diagram
Standards Diagram
Core Artifacts
:
Benefits diagram
Project Context diagram
http://www.gissa.org.za/special-interest-groups/open-source/foss-documents/GWEA%20Framework%20Implementation%20Guide%20v1.2%20Jun%202010.pdf/at_download/file
Outline

1. Defining "enterprise architecture"

2. History of enterprise architecture

3. Frameworks in Enterprise Architecture
Zachmans Framework
TOGAF

4. A Public Health approach to EA

Defining
Frameworks
Public health
Any collection of organizations that share a common set of goals (1)
A hospital
A regional network of labs, hospitals, or public health offices
vertical functional groups, such as national laboratory system
In a health system, an "enterprise" could be
"Enterprise of enterprises, or a SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS (2)"
Frameworks are simply ways to organize thinking about enterprise architecture.
Their are multiple "frameworks" Enterprise Architecture. Four well-known frameworks in the business realm are:
The Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture
Federal Enterprise Architecture
TOGAF (The Open Group Architecture Framework)
Gartner
What is included in each "framework varies"
Zachman =>taxonomy
TOGAF =>process
Federal Enterprise Architecture =>complete methodology
Gartner = practice
Frameworks are not mutually exclusive or necessary to use in their entirety.
The Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture
http://www.zachman.com/
Centered around and known for it's Architecture Development Methodology (ADM)

Can work in conjunction with other taxonomies

Extensive documentation and methodology
Overview of TOGAF
http://www.togaf.info/togaf9/togafSlides9/TOGAF-V9-Sample-Catalogs-Matrics-Diagrams-v2.pdf
Samples of core artifacts:
Content Metamodel
High Level Content Metamodel
South African Government Wide Enterprise Architecture Framework
Takeaways and PHP learning resources
Resources
Objectives of this presentation

Provide a high level understanding of enterprise architecture (EA)

Impart some basic theoretical underpinnings of EA

Introduce some common frameworks

Allow you to "know what you don't know"

Provide resources for further learning

Architecture is a "conception of a system"
Architecture is not merely "physical"
Data
Function
Network
People
Time
Motivation
Artifact
Increasing detail
Architectural Domains
Business
Data
Application
Technology
Information systems
A note about ADM...
Iterative
Artifacts
can be altered throughout the process and versioned
are divided into "core" and "extensions"
core - minimum common denominators
extensions - more comprehensive, specialized list from which architects may pick and choose
are divided into three types:
catalogs
matrices
diagrams
Outputs of one step are inputs into others - everything maps to each other in a complex web.

*ADM and TOGAF are complex and extensive. There is documentation accompanying each step and artifact. This is a VERY high level overview intended to show what kinds of information are included.*

Ex: Principles Catalog
Government Wide Enterprise Architecture Implemention Guide, GITO Council South Africa, 2010 http://www.gissa.org.za/special-interest-groups/open-source/foss-documents/GWEA%20Framework%20Implementation%20Guide%20v1.2%20Jun%202010.pdf/at_download/file
Govt. Wide EA (GWEA) South Africa
Michal Porter's Value Chain Diagram
source: Wikipedia.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Value_chain
Source: TOGAF Version 9 Sample Catalogs, Matrices, and Diagrams. April 2011. http://www.togaf.info/togaf9/togafSlides9/TOGAF-V9-Sample-Catalogs-Matrics-Diagrams-v2.pdf
No specified format
High level "sketch" of how system leads to solutions
Source: TOGAF Version 9 Sample Catalogs, Matrices, and Diagrams. April 2011. http://www.togaf.info/togaf9/togafSlides9/TOGAF-V9-Sample-Catalogs-Matrics-Diagrams-v2.pdf
http://forge.modelio.org/projects/togaf-user-manual-english/wiki/Modeling_Application_modeling
Objectives
:
Develop the Target Business Architecture that describes how the enterprise needs to operate to achieve the business goals, and respond to the strategic drivers set out in the Architecture Vision, in a way that addresses the Request for Architecture Work and stakeholder concerns
Identify candidate Architecture Roadmap components based upon gaps between the Baseline and Target Business Architectures

PHP proprietary content
http://phdsc.org/health_info/pdfs/Standards-for-Public-Health-PHDSC-FINAL-Report.pdf
Objectives
Develop the Target Data Architecture that enables the Business Architecture and the Architecture Vision, while addressing the Request for Architecture Work and stakeholder concerns
Identify candidate Architecture Roadmap components based upon gaps between the Baseline and Target Data Architectures
Core Artifacts
Objectives
Develop the Target Application Architecture that enables the Business Architecture and the Architecture Vision, while addressing the Request for Architecture Work and stakeholder concerns
Identify candidate Architecture Roadmap components based upon gaps between the Baseline and Target Application Architectures
Core Artifacts
Objectives
Develop the Target Technology Architecture that enables the logical and physical application and data components and the Architecture Vision, addressing the Request for Architecture Work and stakeholder concerns
Identify candidate Architecture Roadmap components based upon gaps between the Baseline and Target Technology Architectures
Health Normative Standards Framework (HSNF) South Africa. Presented by Jembi Health Systems
Objectives
Generate the initial complete version of the Architecture Roadmap, based upon the gap analysis and candidate Architecture Roadmap components from Phases B, C, and D
Determine whether an incremental approach is required, and if so identify Transition Architectures that will deliver continuous business value
Finalize the Architecture Roadmap and the supporting Implementation and Migration Plan
Ensure that the Implementation and Migration Plan is coordinated with the enterprise's approach to managing and implementing change in the enterprise's overall change portfolio
Ensure that the business value and cost of work packages and Transition Architectures is understood by key stakeholders
Objectives
Ensure conformance with the Target Architecture by implementation projects
Perform appropriate Architecture Governance functions for the solution and any implementation-driven architecture Change Requests

Objectives
Ensure that the architecture lifecycle is maintained
Ensure that the Architecture Governance Framework is executed
Ensure that the enterprise Architecture Capability meets current requirements
Objectives
Ensure that the Requirements Management process is sustained and operates for all relevant ADM phases
Manage architecture requirements identified during any execution of the ADM cycle or a phase
Ensure that relevant architecture requirements are available for use by each phase as the phase is executed
Objectives
"know what you don't know"
The TOGAF Guide is hundreds of pages long!
The Health Information Sytem Programme (HISP)
Best known as the creators of DHIS2
Developed the first version of DHIS working in post-apartheid South Africa.
Their approach to EA and integrated health systems is one of social justice and user empowerment
Required reading!
Enterprise Architecture is a verb - changing populations and needs will always render an architecture incomplete: .
"A
rchitecture should be regarded as a process tool, which at any point would represent the current understanding and knowledge, which by definition will be inadequate and incomplete."
A Social Systems perspective
EA and HIS exist "within a social context" and involve something "much bigger and qualitatively different from the concept of a computer or technical system
Information use does not follow "assumptions of rational decision-making"
A "district-centered" data warehouse approach
Each administrative should have its own data warehouse in addition to the national data warehouse
Provide a high level understanding of enterprise architecture (EA)
Much more then physical infrastructure
An "enterprise" is really a "enterprise of enterprises"
Multiple layers of architecture
Impart some basic theoretical underpinnings of EA
Multiple perspectives and levels of detail
Artifacts are blueprints or descriptions of individual components of EA
Introduce some common frameworks
Zachman's is foundational
Frameworks can be adapted and combined - they are merely tools to help guide
Allow you to "know what you don't know"
Highly complex, multiple artifacts
Many initiatives already occurring in our countries of work

Provide resources for further learning
PHP knowledge base
TOGAF: http://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/togaf9-doc/arch/index.html
1. TOGAF V.9. Online Edition. http://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/togaf9-doc/arch/index.html
2. Braa, Jorn; Sahay, Sanjeep. Integrated Health Information Architecture: Power to the Users. 2012.
3. Zachman, John A. The Zachman Framework for Enterprse Architecture. 2012. http://www.zachman.com/
4. TOGAF v.9Sample Catalogs, Matrices, and Diagrams. http://www.togaf.info/togaf9/togafSlides9/TOGAF-V9-Sample-Catalogs-Matrics-Diagrams-v2.pdf
5. GITO Council of South Africa. Government Wide Enterprise Architecture Framework. 2010. http://www.gissa.org.za/special-interest-groups/open-source/foss-documents/GWEA%20Framework%20Implementation%20Guide%20v1.2%20Jun%202010.pdf/at_download/file
6. WHO. Framework and Standards for Country Health Information Systems. June 2008.
Enterprise architecture is a relatively young field of work.

Fitzgerald, John; Perry, Mike. Enterprise Architecture and the HMN Framework: A Federated Approach to Interoperability. Presentation, CDC.
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