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ISP introduction: What is Linguistics?

Nov 24, 2011
by

joe trotta

on 30 August 2013

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Transcript of ISP introduction: What is Linguistics?

grammar?
Representation as a process
Reference
Reception
Production
What does the actual language use look like?
How does it reflect the ‘lifeworlds’ of the language users depicted?
What influence does the language have on the way we make sense of the text?
How does it affect our view or interpretation of the individuals/group that is depicted?
How does the ‘represented’ language affect actual usage?
What choices are made in the way language is depicted?
What part does the language play in text production?
What are the practices and conventions that affect text production?
How does audience design fit into the picture?
Joe Trotta
GU/SPL/English
Standard vs
Dialect, Style & Register
Taken together, ‘play’ and ‘game’ constitute a powerful linguistic icon. Every game in the social universe has its clearly defined rules of play. Conceptualizing reality and life as a game is a framework that fixes things, puts structure and system in place, gives one the comfort of order in a random, disorderly world... (Smitherman 2006: 68)
Prescriptive vs
Descriptive Grammar
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
What is

A B C D E
Standard..|...|...|....|.....|..Nonstandard
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
... because it is the 'language' that makes it possible for us to talk about language; it offers a window into the human mind and into our amazingly complex mental capacity.
Knowledge about how language works is central to knowing what it is to be human.
“Grammar is the business of taking a language to pieces, to see how it works.” (David Crystal)
Grammar, then, seeks to make clear the systems, tendencies, ‘rules’ or underlying principles that describe the structure of language.
... because grammar is the structural foundation of our ability to express ourselves. The more we are aware of how it works, the more we can monitor the meaning and effectiveness of the way we and others use language. It can help foster precision, detect ambiguity, and exploit the richness of expression available in English. (David Crystal)
...because a university course is necessarily dependent on a theoretical approach!
Taken together, ‘play’ and ‘game’ constitute a powerful linguistic icon. Every game in the social universe has its clearly defined rules of play. Conceptualizing reality and life as a game is a framework that fixes things, puts structure and system in place, gives one the comfort of order in a random, disorderly world... (Smitherman 2006: 68)
Why study
Theory vs.
Start where you are.
Read the book and be prepared.
Having a positive attitude helps.
The hungry dog has eaten my homework.
Sentence
Noun Phrase
Verb Phrase
Noun Phrase
my
homework
The
hungry
dog
has
eaten
Subject
Verb
Object
article
adjective
noun
aux. verb
main verb
pronoun
noun
Knowing the mechanics of a language can help us to communicate more effectively and with more authority.
Knowing about and understanding the basic questions of linguistics enhances our knowledge of ourselves and others; such knowledge is (or should be) part of our intellectual foundation as educated people.
Ask questions!
Manage your time well.
What to think about?
Final comments
Glamour, Grammar & other Glorious Pursuits:
It also involves knowing how elements are related to each other and how this affects grammatical choices, e.g subject-verb agreement, pronoun choice, tense, etc.
Cf. 'I ain't tellin nobody nothin.'
Grammar is the systematic description of a language.
It involves understanding conceptual units (e.g. word classes, phrase types, etc.) and how those units are expanded, combined & organized into larger structures.
Studying grammar provides the basics for studying any language.
grammar?
Practice
studying linguistics
is totally
GLAMOUROUS!
... and don't forget ...
What is
"Linguistics is the science of language. It is the subject whose practitioners devote their energy to understanding why human language is the way it is. They study the history, acquisition, structure, and use of as many languages as possible - It would be nice to study them all, but life's too short."

(Crystal: http://www.bangor.ac.uk/ling/whatis.htm)
IsP introduction/ Wednesday, Sept. 4, 2012
an introduction to Linguistcs for ISP students
Linguistics?
phonetics & phonology
morphology
syntax
semantics
conversation analysis
dialectology
sociolinguistics
psycholinguistics
paralinguistics
second language acquisition
applied linguistics
Language Acquisition
Historical linguistics
Where is language stored and processed in the brain?
What does it have in common with animal communication? How is it different?
Language & Politics
dominant ideology?
the manufacture of consent
‘Ideology is at its most powerful when it is invisible, when discourses have been naturalised and become part of our everyday commonsense.’ (Janks 1997: 341)
Language & Symbolic Capital:
Language,
Language &
Non-standard Language
Language and the Brain
How is it learned?
How did language originate?
Some
(according to Joe)
Thought &
Culture?
Structure of the Program
pragmatics
& discourse analysis
Persuasion
bits
interesting
English in Swedish
Full transcript