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Cathy Tenney

on 27 July 2014

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Where we go from this
Which often results in this
Which allows for more of this

"Students gain first exposure to new material outside of class, usually via reading or lecture videos, and then use class time to do the harder work of assimilating that knowledge, perhaps through problem-solving, discussion, or debates. In terms of Bloom’s revised taxonomy (2001), this means that students are doing the lower levels of cognitive work (gaining knowledge and comprehension) outside of class, and focusing on the higher forms of cognitive work (application, analysis, synthesis, and/or evaluation) in class, where they have the support of their peers and instructor. This model contrasts from the traditional model in which “first exposure” occurs via lecture in class, with students assimilating knowledge through homework; thus the term “flipped classroom” (Brame, C., 2013).
The Flipped Classroom vs. the Traditional Classroom
The Key Points in the Flipped Classroom Model
1. Initial exposure to material happens at home.
2. Students need to have access to the internet.
3. Lectures are not simply “videos” students watch.

a. Videos are chosen for specific lecture content, whether the teacher makes their own, or finds them online. Some resources and software; YouTube, Powerpoints, Khan Academy video, MIT’s OpenCourseWare, Coursera, Screener, Skyrocket, or other similar sources.

b. Lectures must be appropriate for the age level of the student, as well as, the cognitive level, therefore if a class has a mixed level of students than more than one lecture video may be assigned.

c. Students are required to take notes on the video lectures, however the amount of instruction, guidance, on what should be taken as notes will be dependent on level; i.e. for the lowest students a fill in note sheet, for the mid-level student a lecture that stops and tells students specifically what they should have written down, and high level students would be directed simply to take notes.

4. Teacher must have a way of assessing the previous night’s activity; i.e. 3 entry questions that students use their notes to answer, an online quiz to be completed after the notes are taken, either method should check for completion but not expect understanding.
5. In the classroom, because students come in with the base knowledge of a topic, teachers can design lessons that allow students to can gain a deeper understanding of the material or by using the online quiz results which are instantaneous, teachers can determine the specific points which students struggle with and chose lessons that will strengthen the areas the students struggle with most. Activities can be debates, group work, labs or hands depending on the particular class and the material beginning taught.
Downsides of the flipped classroom

"Although the idea is straightforward, an effective flip requires careful preparation this can mean additional work and may require new skills for the instructor.
The students also may not have access to equipment that allows for the videos to be delivered rapidly" (Educause, 2012).
The Implications for Teaching and Learning

"The flipped classroom constitutes a role change for instructors,who give up their front-of-the-class position in favor of a more collaborative and cooperative contribution to the teaching process.There is a concomitant change in the role of students, many of whom are used to being cast as passive participants in the education process, where instruction is served to them. The flipped model puts more of the responsibility for learning on the shoulders of students while giving them greater impetus to experiment. Activities can be student-led, and communication among students can become the determining dynamic of a session devoted to learning through hands-on work. What the flip does particularly well is to bring about a distinctive shift in priorities—from merely covering material to working toward mastery of it" (Educause, 2012).
The Benefits to using the flipped classroom model

"The use of video and other prerecorded media puts lectures under the control of the students: they can watch, rewind,and fast-forward as needed. This ability may be of particular value to students with accessibility concerns, especially where captions are provided for those with hearing impairments.
Lectures that can be viewed more than once may also help those for whom English is not their first language.
Devoting class time to application of concepts might give instructors a better opportunity to detect errors in thinking, particularly those that are widespread in a class. At the same time, collaborative projects can encourage social interaction among students, making it easier for them to learn from one another and for those of varying skill levels to support their peers" (Educause, 2012).
Brame, C. J. (2013). Flipping the Classroom | Center for Teaching | Vanderbilt University. Retrieved from
Biology Lecture - 16 - Plasma Membrane [Video file]. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Fluid Mosaic Model of the Cell Membrane [Video file]. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Educational Leadership:Technology-Rich Learning:Evidence on Flipped Classrooms Is Still Coming In. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Goodwin, B., & Miller, K. (2013, March). Educational Leadership:Technology-Rich Learning:Evidence on Flipped Classrooms Is StillComing In. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/mar13/vol70/num06/Evidence-on-Flipped-Classrooms-Is-Still-Coming-In.aspx
Miller, A. (2012, February). Five Best Practices for the Flipped Classroom | Edutopia. Retrieved from
Overmyer, J. (n.d.). University of Colorado Educational Vodcasting - Flipping the Classroom. Retrieved from
Cell membrane worksheet. Retrieved from http://www.biologyjunction.com/
Does it work?
Taken from Goodwin and Miller, "In one survey of 453 teachers who flipped their classrooms, 67 percent reported increased test scores, with particular benefits for students in advanced placement classes and students with special needs; 80 percent reported improved student attitudes; and 99 percent said they would flip their classrooms again next year (Flipped Learning Network, 2012). Clintondale High School in Michigan saw the failure rate of its 9th grade math students drop from 44 to 13 percent after adopting flipped classrooms (Finkel, 2012).

In another example, "Wieman and colleagues compared two sections of a large-enrollment physics class. The classes were both taught via interactive lecture methods for the majority of the semester and showed no significant differences prior to the experiment. During the twelfth week of the semester, one section was “flipped,” with first exposure to new material occurring prior to class via reading assignments and quizzes, and class time devoted to small group discussion of clicker questions and questions that required written responses. Although class discussion was supported by targeted instructor feedback, no formal lecture was included in the experimental group. The control section was encouraged to read the same assignments prior to class and answered most of the same clicker questions for summative assessment but were not intentionally engaged in active learning exercises during class. During the experiment, student engagement increased in the experimental section (from 45 +/- 5% to 85 +/- 5% as assessed by four trained observers) but did not change in the control section. At the end of the experimental week, students completed a multiple choice test, resulting in an average score of 41 +/- 1% in the control classroom and 74 +/- 1% in the “flipped” classroom, with an effect size of 2.5 standard deviations" (Brame, 2012).
By Cathy (Rollins) Tenney
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