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Durkheim

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eli wan

on 13 November 2014

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Transcript of Durkheim

Influences
Publications
METHODS
-believed that observation has to be done as impartial and impersonal as possible
Historical/Geographical Context from which he emerged
1858-1917
Specific Concepts and Terms

Organic solidarity:
Industrial societies
-Occupation specialization ( people need each other to function)
-individual freedom and ultimately happiness were maximized under organic solidarity.
It is a social cohesion based upon the dependence of individuals have on each other in more advanced societies. Based on the division of labor and complexity of industrial societies.


Durkheim
Main Goals and Ideas
Durkheim believed that human society followed laws, just like the natural laws of biology and physics, that could be discovered through empirical observation and testing
Quote:
A person is not merely a single subject distinguished from all the others. It is especially a being to which is attributed a relative autonomy in relation to the environment with which it is most immediately in contact.
Immanuel Kant
Jean-Jaques Rousseau
Aristotle
Plato
Auguste Comte
Herbert Spencer

-AG extending scientific method to the social sciences
-positivism
HB different parts of society operating to function as whole and use of organic analogy

However- incorporated evolutionary theory but in a much more critical way.
Not grand theory but developing a perspective and method that could be applied in diverse ways
Father of sociology
Radcliffe Brown
-evident in his attempts to show how cultures function to maintain equilibrium. Believed that society was a collection of different units and if one piece was wrong then the whole society would fall apart. As Durkheim looked at structures of society as whole, like kinship systems, instead of focusing on the individuals because the kinship systems stay the same but people die.

Alfred Cort Haddon
- As Durkheim looked less at the individual and more at society as a group.

Durkheim is remembered as the father of sociology who made it a science, he was a major advocate for structural functionalism
Mechanical solidarity
:
primitive societies
- society lacks internal differentiation
-people are not dependent on each other for survival
-kinship forms the primary bonds between people.
Social Facts:
social and behavioral rules that exist before an individual is born into a society
-general throughout society
-social facts can be observed in people's actions

Durkheimian Individual:
-homo duplex
-people have two existences one rooted in biological organism and one in a social
-there is tension between the two however sharing a common language and culture a collective consciousness is reachable
individual's beliefs, emotions, and actions were a product of the social structure

which lead to creating a
common conscience (
shared system of beliefs
) --> solidarity

Radcliffe Brown
-evident in his attempts to show how cultures function to maintain equilibrium. Believed that society was a collection of different units and if one piece was wrong then the whole society would fall apart. As Durkheim looked at structures of society as whole, like kinship systems, instead of focusing on the individuals because the kinship systems stay the same but people die.

Alfred Cort Haddon
- As Durkheim looked less at the individual and more at society as a group.

Durkheim is remembered as the father of sociology who made it a science, he was a major advocate for structural functionalism. He believed that society should be studied at large and not just individuals actions.
Durkheims Goals
1. Establish sociology as an academic discipline
2.Differentiate it from psychology and philosophy
3. Establish the priority of the social over the individual and the idea that society can be studied scientifically.
He believed that society was much more than a collection of individuals so he went on to discovering the laws and principles by which society operated
-used
comparative method


-used statistical data to develop an understanding and support his arguments
-was essentially an armchair scholar
-believed that you could not focus on an individual in isolation from the social structure
Two Types
Critiques
-"structural functionalist" approach
Durkheim neglects the agency of individuals in general to control social forces
Extreme focus on equilibrium in society, that he does not explain social change, for example
French
-studied social facts
sociology emerged from the enlightenment era
-The Division of Labour in Society
in 1886
Advanced sociological theories and thought

-
The Rules of Sociological Method
1895
Was a manifesto stating what sociology was and how it should be done. Led to the founding of the first European department of sociology at the University of Bordeaux.

-
Suicide
in 1897
Was a study of suicide rates in Catholic and Protestant populations. Distinguished social science from psychology and political philosophy.

-
The Elementary Forms of Religious Life
1912
This book presented the theory of religion, comparing aboriginal and modern societies through their social and cultural aspects.
- statistics can be misleading
Sources


http://www.iep.utm.edu/durkheim/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89mile_Durkheim

Books:

Barret, Stanley R. Anthropology A Student's Guide to Theory and Method. Second Edition ed. N.p.: U of Toronto P, 2009. Print.

McGee, R. Jon, and Richard L. Warms. Anthropological Theory and Introductory History. Fourth Edition ed. N.p.: Mc Graw Hill, 2008. Print.

Internet encyclopedia of philosophy by Paul Carls
Full transcript