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Transcript of Assignment 10.2
Just as a computer cannot operate without an operating system, a network of computers cannot operate without a network operating system. Without a network operating system the stand-alone computers cannot communicate with each other therefore some sort of network operating system of some kind needs to be put in place in order for the network to exist. Below are some common server features that servers support:
* GUI not available or optional
* Ability to reconfigure and update both hardware and software to some extent without restart,
* Advanced backup facilities to permit regular and frequent online backups of critical data,
* Transparent data transfer between different volumes or devices,
* Flexible and advanced networking capabilities,
* Automation capabilities such as daemons in UNIX and services in Windows, and
* Tight system security, with advanced user, resource, data, and memory protection. Server Software Features Below are a few examples of server operating systems:
Windows Server 2003
Windows 2000 Server
Ubuntu 14.04 Server (LTS)*
*LTS long term support linux have a technique in which their most recent release is now supported for the next 5 years. NOTES SHEET 1 The TCP/IP model
TCP/IP is based on a four-layer reference model. All protocols that belong to the TCP/IP protocol suite are located in the top three layers of this model.
As shown in the following illustration, each layer of the TCP/IP model corresponds to one or more layers of the seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model proposed by the International Standards Organization (ISO). Telnet-Telnet is a network protocol used on the Internet or local area networks to provide a bidirectional interactive text-based communications facility using a virtual terminal connection. User data is interspersed in-band with Telnet control information in an 8-bit byte oriented data connection over the Transmission Control Protocol. FTP- File Transfer Protocol is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet. SMTP-Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is an Internet standard for electronic mail (e-mail) transmission across Internet Protocol (IP) networks DNS-The Domain Name System is a rank ordered distributed naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities. RIP-The Routing Information Protocol is a distance-vector routing protocol, which employs the hop count as a routing metric. RIP prevents routing loops by implementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a path from the source to a destination. SNMP-Simple Network Management Protocol is an Internet-standard protocol for managing devices on IP networks. Devices that typically support SNMP include routers, switches, servers, workstations, printers, modem racks, and more. Brian brian brian NOTES SHEET 2 Integrated services digital network, an international communications standard for sending voice, video, and data over digital telephone lines or normal telephone wires. ISDN supports data transfer rates of 64 Kbps (64,000 bits per second).
There are two types of ISDN:
•Basic Rate Interface (BRI) -- consists of two 64-Kb/ps B-channels and one D-channel for transmitting control information.
•Primary Rate Interface (PRI) -- consists of 23 B-channels and one D-channel (U.S.) or 30 B-channels and one D-channel (Europe).
ISDN is referred to as a circuit-switching technology. It operates by routing calls on a hop-by-hop basis. Don't think about the signaling path, but think about the actual path that the bearer traffic takes. The call moves from switch to switch until it arrives at its final destination. After it is there, a circuit path is opened from one end of the call to the other. That circuit remains open until it is closed by one of the participating sides.
This is exactly how the ISDN network operates. When someone wants to connect to Chris he must dial a number that is associated with Chris's ISDN circuit. These numbers are commonly referred to as phone numbers, but in the ISDN world they're actually E.164 numbers, or addresses. When Keith calls 555-1212, the call is switched through the network to Chris's location and the call is connected. Remember that as the call transits through the public switched telephone network (PSTN), it's not necessarily ISDN. The circuit path between the two parties is reserved for the duration of the call and released upon disconnect. To be covered in network models section:
-Protocols used in WAN
-Protocols used in MOBILE NETWORKS
-Protocols used in LAN Network Types LAN- LAN stands for Local Area Connection.
LAN's are design to provide network
connectivity to a set group of computers
that are relevantly close to each other
for example schools, offices or even homes.
LAN’s can also be used to share resources
files printers so are often found in small
office buildings typically within one build
as they only cover a small geographical area.
Lans are usually connected to each other
through a series of wires or even wireless
connected depending on the hardware you
have available. A token ring network was used as an alternative to Ethernet. A token ring network is a type of LAN network as it is normal a small number of computers connected together. On a token ring only one computer can transmit data at any one time. To transfer data this computer needs to have the token which is a small message which is passed around the network, the disadvantage of this is that large token rings are often slow as only one node can transfer data at one time. The way token rings work is that when a data packet arrive at a device in the ring that device check to see if the packet has an address for it if so the packet is opened and read if not the packet is sent on to the next device until it reaches it correct destination. Protocols used in WAN Token Ring WAN is standing for Wide area Network and allot of different protocols are used in WAN networks. Peer To Peer on a peer to peer network there is no central server as all the computers on that network are directly connected to each other and have ability to search for files on every computer that is connect to that network. Each computer on a peer to peer network has to have user account setup to be able to access the other computer in that network also peer to peer networks are common small containing 10 or less computers. LAN Client Server WAN Frame Relay PAN’s are computer network which is designed around one person to provide them with a connection to the internet. PAN networks involve small handheld device such as smart phones, PDA and games consoles. PAN networks are mainly used to transfer files such as email and calendar appointments, digital photos and music. PAN Bluetooth is a wireless technology that uses low frequency waves to allow two devices to communicate and send files. Bluetooth is used in many different household devices e.g Cordless Phones, Baby Monitors & Garage-door openers as all those items below transmit low frequency wave to connect to one and other. Bluetooth data is transmitted through low power wave lengths which have a frequency of 2.4GHz which has been set aside by the international agreement for the use of industrial, scientific and medical devices. Bluetooth Topologies Physical on a star network all the nodes on the network are directly connected to a hub which is at the center of the network. This kind of network is relatively easy to install and manage. The downside to this style of LAN is that it can often be overloaded if all or many nodes on the network are trying to access files on the central sever at the same moment in time. Star Topologies There are many different types and formations of topologies some more effective than others. on a bus topology all the nodes are connected to a server which is commonly called the backbone or bus of the network. This type of network is easy and cheap to set up. The disadvantage of this this type of network is that there is a limit to the number of nodes you can have connect at a one time, also cable length will restrict the size of your network and this network type can usually not withstand large amount of data. Bus Topologies Ring Topologies The ring topology is one the most simple but unreliable topology’s as each computer in the network is simple connect to each other creating a ring like formation. The problem with the ring topology’s is that when a message is sent it goes round all the computers in the formation until it reaches the computer with the correct address meaning if one of the computers in this topology become faulty the whole network will not work as this will create a gap in the network stopping the message from being transferred. Notes sheet 3 Network Services Packets and circuit switching ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) represents a relatively recently developed communications technology designed to overcome the constraints associated with traditional, and for the most part separate, voice and data networks. ATM can be considered to represent a unifying technology because it was designed to transport voice, data, and video (including graphics images) on both local and wide area networks. Until the development of ATM, networks were normally developed based on the type of data to be transported. ATM uses packet switching which means when the data is all broken down into packets to be sent the packets are then able to take different routes to get to their destination. Packet switching is efficient as data the can withstand some delays in transmission, such as e-mail messages and Web pages. A wide area network is a computer network covering a distance over one area or several areas, which may spread across the entire world. WAN's often connect multiple smaller networks, such as local area networks or metro area networks (MANs). The world's most popular WAN is the Internet. Some parts of the Internet are also WANs in themselves. A wide area network may be privately owned or rented from service providers, but the term usually connotes the inclusion of public networks. Protocol Structure: -ATM ( covered previously)
SONET(Synchronous Optical Network)
Frame Relay(Covered Below)
PPP (Point to point control) SONET-The Synchronous Optical Network and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) are a set of related standards for synchronous data transmission over fiber optic networks that are often used for framing and synchronization at the physical layer. SONET is the United States version of the standard published by the American National Standards Institute. SDH is the international version of the standard published by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). Frame Relay- is a standardized wide area network technology that specifies the physical and logical link layers of digital telecommunications channels using a packet switching methodology. Originally designed for transport across Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) infrastructure, it may be used today in the context of many other network interfaces. It is one of the commonly protocols used in WAN Logical Logical topology’s are not the same as physical topologies as it is not about how they are physically connect it’s about how the network and different components connect and communicate with each other inside the network. There are many different protocols associated with logical topologies such as the Ethernet, Local talk & IBM protocol.
Logical Tropology’s are the way networks connect to each other ruling out the physical side e.g wires. For example you use a topology when you search for something on the internet you use a logical tropology to get the data or information you sent for. Common topologies can be completely different formation to the physical tropology's you are using, the most common logical tropology's are the bus and star tropology’s. In networking, the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a data link protocol commonly used in establishing a direct connection between two networking nodes.
It can provide connection authentication, transmission encryption (using ECP, RFC 1968), and compression. It allows more than one protocol to operate on one layer. Network Services Packets and circuit switching ADSL stands for asymmetric digital subscriber line. Unlike dial-up, which uses the phone line to make a connection, ADSL actually works alongside the frequencies used for voice telephone calling, therefore allowing you to continue to make phone calls while using the internet. It enables faster data transmission through a single connection, but allows users to download data and make voice calls at the same time.
DSL technology is a circuit-switched connection technology that uses existing twisted-pair telephone lines to transport high-bandwidth data, such as multimedia and video, to service subscribers. You get a dedicated copper line between your modem and the DSLAM port.
ADSL can be both packet and circuit switched though but this depends on which part of the line you’re looking at. Broadband ADSL Protocols used in LAN Protocols used in LAN
Ethernet, wireless LAN and Token Ring using the standard IEEE 802.11
are good examples of LAN technologies. All the protocols used in LAN are known as the 802.11 family protocols. Ethernet Ethernet LAN protocols as defined in IEEE 802.3 suite:
-Fast Ethernet: Ethernet LAN at data rate 100Mbps (IEEE 802.3u)
-Gigabit Ethernet: Ethernet at data rate 1000Mbps (IEEE 802.3z, 802.3ab)
-10Gigabit Ethernet: Ethernet at data rate 10 Gbps (IEEE 802.3ae)
-Wireless LAN in IEEE 802.11, 802,11a, 802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11n
- IEEE 802.11i: WLAN Security Standards
-IEEE 802.1X: WLAN Authentication & Key Management
- IEEE 802.15: Bluetooth for Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)
-IEEE 802.1Q: Virtual LAN Bridging Switching Protocol
-GARP: Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (802.1P)
-GMRP: GARP Multicast Registration Protocol (802.1P)
-GVRP: GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (802.1P, 802.1Q)
-VTP: VLAN Trunking Protocol
-Token Ring: IEEE 802.5 LAN protocol
-FDDI: Fiber Distributed Data Interface
-LLC: Logic Link Control (IEEE 802.2)
-SNAP: SubNetwork Access Protocol
-STP: Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D) & IEEE 802.1p: LAN Layer 2 QoS/CoS Protocol NOTES SHEET 4 Video Explaining the family of 802.11 protocols. Protocols used in mobile networks The problem found when trying to use the internet
on a mobile device is that you are constantly
moving about causing a problem with your IP as you connect to different nodes and routers all the time and so protocols are extended in mobile connections to ensure that the data aimed at your device gets there no matter where you move. To the right is a diagram showing how the protocols redirect information so that it gets to you no matter where you're connected. There arent really protocols as such but there are IP controls in place to make sure it all runs smoothly. Thanks For Watching!! Please mute the sound on the next video as it is int German Different protocols
7 layer OSI model
–Application- the application layer is used as the user interface for them to access the data that has been received
–Presentation- this layer formats the data when it is first receive from the format it is in to a compatible format for the application layer
–Session- The session layer allows you to establish between processes between each node, giving you the control to establish, maintain & terminate different processes.
–Transport- The transport layer is used to ensure that data is received, also it check the data to see if it is receive without any corruption or duplications. Also relieving the top layers of check data that has been transferred
–Network- the network layer is used to decide the physical path data packets will take when sent from one node to another
–Data Link- the data link gives you error free transfer of data from on node to another, allowing layer above it error free data transmission.
–Physical- this is the bottom level of the osi model, this layer controls the transmission and reception of the raw data onto a physical data medium The osi model is the process what shows which data uses when been transmitted from node to node. This model is broken down into 7 different layer all which act individually to each other to guide data packets to the receiving computer. The purpose of the OSI Model TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. The tcp/ip protocol is split up into 4 layers
Application layer: the application layer is diffrent network applications are found & the application used is decided on by what type of transmission you are doing for example: SMTP for email, FTP for file transfer & HTTP for web browsing.
Transport layer: in this protocol the transport layer is incharge of dividing the data up into packets before it is sent onto the next layer
Internet layer: the internet layer is the layer that has the ip protocol which when the data packets are recieved a virtual address of the recieving computer is then added onto the packet to prepare it for sending.
Network Layer: the network layer is the final layer in the procces this layer is used to send the packets acroos the network to the recieving computer Protocols are essential for communication, authentication and error detection in networking. TCP/IP is the most common protocol used in a modern day network as its used to ensure successful error free communication between two devices. Protocols allow computer enable computer to connect to each other as the set guide line & rules without protocols networks would simple no work. For example a protocol is like a language, if two people weren’t able to speak the same language they wouldn’t be able to talk to each other, so if two computer that where trying to connect weren’t using the same protocols they would be able to connect to each other that why the protocols rules and guidelines are put in place .
When computer where first made there was many different brands & types of computers made by different companies which all used separate protocol & standards for transmitting data which caused problems when it came to data transmission as the protocols were not compatible with each other. protocols such as tcp/ip & the osi box model where created & made compulsory for all computers to enable transmission between two separate device. Standards such as 802.11 were also created for wireless transmission.
Network standards are also rules that are set by protocol so that interconnecting hardware is compatibility when communicating such as the 802.11 standards which is used in wireless communication. This is done to ensure that you have full compatibility in your network. It is important to have standards as each network as if not there would be a communication barrier between hardware devices in a network. So it is important to have network standards as they set the guidelines which enable other computers to be able to connect and communication with your pc . Why protocols are necessary